Application Of Item Response Theory In The Development And Validation Of Multiple Choice Test In Economics For Senior Secondary School One Students

BLESSING NGOZI | 78 pages (28061 words) | Theses

ABSTRACT

 

The study applied item response theory in the development and validation of multiple choice test in Economics for Senior secondary school one students in Umuahia North LGA of Abia State. The study adopted instrumentation design. The population of the study was 2049 which comprised 1049 males and 1000 females from a total of 16 senior secondary schools in Umuahia North L.G.A of Abia State. The sample size for the study was 300 SS1 students which comprised 123 males and 177 females from a total of 10 secondary schools selected for the study. The study adopted three sampling techniques at different stages in selecting the schools and students. The first stage involved the selection of all the 16 public schools using the purposive sampling technique. The second stage involved the selection of the students from each of the secondary schools selected using the stratified random sampling technique. The third stage involved the selection of the required sample size of the students from each school using the simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was Economics Achievement Test (EMT). The instrument was subjected to face validation and content validation. The reliability coefficient was 0.68 which was determined using the Kuder-Richardson 20. The data were collected through the distribution of 300 copies of the Economics Achievement Test to 300 SS1 students with the help of research assistants. The research questions 1, 2, 3, 4 were answered using the item analysis while 5 and 6 were answered using the chi-square. The hypotheses were tested using the chi-square for differential item functioning. The findings of the study reviewed that item difficulty, discrimination, distracter index and Standard Error of Measurement where satisfactory, as the items fit the three parameter logistic model and differential item functioning (DIF) effect were observed among twenty eight items. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that psychometricians and test development experts should organize workshops to train teachers on test development based on IRT model for their students, and examination bodies should be encouraged to adopt IRT in developing test items used in measuring students’ ability in Economics. 

   TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgments                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              x

List of Figures                                                                                                             xi

Abstract                                                                                                                      xii

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                          1

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               9

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                      10

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         11

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                      11

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               11

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         13

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                              15

2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                                   15

2.1.1    Concept of achievement test                                                                          15

2.1.2    Qualities of a test                                                                                            16

2.1.3    Concept of validity                                                                                         17

2.1.4    Internal and external validity                                                                          17

2.1.5    Types of validity                                                                                             18

2.1.6    Content validity                                                                                              18

2.1.7    Construct validity                                                                                           18

2.1.8    Criterion validity                                                                                             18

2.1.9    Concurrent validity                                                                                         19

2.1.10  Predictive validity                                                                                           19

2.1.11  Analysis of fit                                                                                                 19

2.2       Concept of Reliability                                                                                     18

2.2.1    Method of measuring reliability                                                                      20

2.2.2    Stability                                                                                                           21

2.2.3    Equivalent forms reliability                                                                             21

2.2.4    Internal consistency reliability                                                                        22

2.2.5    Standard error of measurement (S.E.M)                                                         22

2.3       Objectivity of a Test                                                                                       22

2.3.1    Usability of a test                                                                                            23

2.3.2    Concept of educational assessment                                                                23

2.3.3    Procedures for development of a test                                                             25

2.3.4    Item writing                                                                                                    27

2.3.5    Face validation                                                                                                27

2.3.6    Item review                                                                                                     27

2.3.7    Trial testing                                                                                                     27

2.3.8    Item analysis                                                                                                   28

2.4       Differential Item Functioning (DIF)                                                              28

2.5       Concept of Gender                                                                                         29

2.6       Development of Multiple Choice Items                                                         29

2.6.1    Generating the multiple-choice item                                                               29

2.6.2    Qualities of a good multiple choice test                                                         30

2.7       Item Difficulty Index                                                                                     31

2.8       Item Discrimination Index                                                                              32

2.9       Distracter Index                                                                                              33

2.10     Theoretical Framework                                                                                   34

2.11     An Overview of Classical Test Theory                                                           35

2.12     An Overview of Item Response Theory                                                         39

2.12.1    Item response theory basis                                                                            42

2.12.2   Purpose of item response theory                                                                    42

2.12.3  Advantages of item response theory                                                              43

2.12.4  Assumptions of item response theory                                                             44

2.12.5  Unidimensionality                                                                                           45

2.12.6  Local independence                                                                                        45

2.12.7  Item characteristics curve                                                                               45

2.12.8  Item response parameter                                                                                 47

2.13     Related Empirical Studies on the Application of Item Response Theory

in the Development and Validation of Multiple Choice Test In Economics  49

 

2.13.1  Studies on item response theory                                                                     49

2.14     Studies on Development and Validation of Instrument                                 51

2.15     Summary of Literature Review                                                                      53

 

 

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY                                                                          55

3.1       Design of the Study                                                                                        55

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                           55

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                  56

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                    58

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                       59

3.6       Validation of Instrument                                                                                59

3.7       Reliability of Instrument                                                                                 60

3.8       Method of Data Collection                                                                             60

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               61

 

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                    62

4.1       Results Presentation                                                                                        62

4.1.1    Research question one                                                                                    62

4.1.2    Research question two                                                                                    64

4.1.3    Research question three                                                                                  66

4.1.4    Research question four                                                                                   67

4.1.5    Research question five                                                                                    68

4.1.6    Research question six                                                                                      69

4.1.7    Hypothesis one                                                                                               72

4.1.8    Hypothesis two                                                                                               72

4.2       Summary of Findings                                                                                     73

4.3       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   74

 

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 78

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         78

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      81

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          82

5.4       Educational Implications of the Study                                                           82

5.5       Limitations of the study                                                                                 83

5.6       Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                       84

           References                                                                                                       85

           Appendices                                                                                                      94

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

2.1:      A sample of a test blue-print for a 50 item achievement test                         26

3.1:      Population of SS 1 economics students in 16 public schools in

Umuahia North LGA                                                                                      57

4.1:      The difficulty parameters of the items of the multiple choice test in

Economics                                                                                                       62

 

4.2:      Items parameters of the test items of the multiple choice test in economics  64

4.3:      The guessing parameters or distracter effectiveness of the test items of

the multiple choice test in economics                                                             66

 

 

4.4:      The standard and errors of the test items of the multiple choice test in

economics based on the standard errors of measurement                               67

 

4.5:      Item information function of fits statistics of economics multiple choice

test based on three parameter logistic (3PL) model                                        68

 

4.6:      Model for group differential item functioning of the test items of the

            multiple choice test in economics.                                                                  69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

2.1:      A diagram of a typical item characteristics curve                                           46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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APA

BLESSING, N (2023). Application Of Item Response Theory In The Development And Validation Of Multiple Choice Test In Economics For Senior Secondary School One Students. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved May 24, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/application-of-item-response-theory-in-the-development-and-validation-of-multiple-choice-test-in-economics-for-senior-secondary-school-one-students-7-2

MLA 8th

NGOZI, BLESSING. "Application Of Item Response Theory In The Development And Validation Of Multiple Choice Test In Economics For Senior Secondary School One Students" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 14 Sep. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/application-of-item-response-theory-in-the-development-and-validation-of-multiple-choice-test-in-economics-for-senior-secondary-school-one-students-7-2. Accessed 24 May. 2024.

MLA7

NGOZI, BLESSING. "Application Of Item Response Theory In The Development And Validation Of Multiple Choice Test In Economics For Senior Secondary School One Students". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 14 Sep. 2023. Web. 24 May. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/application-of-item-response-theory-in-the-development-and-validation-of-multiple-choice-test-in-economics-for-senior-secondary-school-one-students-7-2 >.

Chicago

NGOZI, BLESSING. "Application Of Item Response Theory In The Development And Validation Of Multiple Choice Test In Economics For Senior Secondary School One Students" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 24 May. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/application-of-item-response-theory-in-the-development-and-validation-of-multiple-choice-test-in-economics-for-senior-secondary-school-one-students-7-2

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