The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of brand identity on fan loyalty using the Nigerian professional football league (NPFL) as the case study. The study also examined the effect of brand image on brand identity and fan loyalty. We employed a causal research design. The sample comprised 384 adult football fans across six states in South-South zones of Nigeria and was determined using the formula suggested by Cochran (1977). Brand identity was measured using four dimensions; namely, brand symbol, brand organization, brand experience and brand communication, while fan loyalty was measured in terms of fan behavioural loyalty. All variables were measured on an interval scale using the 5-point Likert scale. The response rate was approximately 99%. The reliability of the research instrument was determined using the Cronbach Alpha method, with all variables having a reliability coefficient that was substantially greater than the Alpha threshold of 0.7. Face and content validity were established based on expert opinion. A confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted to further determine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Composite reliability, convergent and discriminant validity all were established based on the CFA results. The results found that brand symbol and brand experience both have a positive but insignificant effect on fan behavioural loyalty. However, brand organization and brand communication both have a positive and highly significant effect on fan behavioural loyalty. The results further showed that brand image has a positive and highly significant effect on fan behavioural loyalty, both directly and through its interaction with brand identity. Finally, brand symbol, brand organization, brand experience and brand communication all jointly account for approximately 82% of the variance on customer loyalty, and when brand image and its interaction with brand identity are incorporated in the customer loyalty model, the explained variance increases to approximately 98%. However, brand communication is the most significant brand identity factor for improving fan loyalty in the Nigerian professional football league. We recommended rebranding of Nigeria professional football league and giving them the right identity, which would, not only, turnaround the current declining fortune, but also, make the Nigerian professional football league more competitive in the global football industry.
MICHAEL, U (2022). Brand Identity And Fan Loyalty Of Nigeria Professional Football League In South – South Nigeria. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Nov 26, 2022, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/brand-identity-and-fan-loyalty-of-nigeria-professional-football-league-in-south-south-nigeria-7-2
UNIVERSITY, MICHAEL. "Brand Identity And Fan Loyalty Of Nigeria Professional Football League In South – South Nigeria" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 23 Mar. 2022, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/brand-identity-and-fan-loyalty-of-nigeria-professional-football-league-in-south-south-nigeria-7-2. Accessed 26 Nov. 2022.
UNIVERSITY, MICHAEL. "Brand Identity And Fan Loyalty Of Nigeria Professional Football League In South – South Nigeria". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 23 Mar. 2022. Web. 26 Nov. 2022. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/brand-identity-and-fan-loyalty-of-nigeria-professional-football-league-in-south-south-nigeria-7-2 >.
UNIVERSITY, MICHAEL. "Brand Identity And Fan Loyalty Of Nigeria Professional Football League In South – South Nigeria" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2022). Accessed 26 Nov. 2022. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/brand-identity-and-fan-loyalty-of-nigeria-professional-football-league-in-south-south-nigeria-7-2