Modeling Of Energy Generation From Municipal Solid Waste

FORTUNE OLIVER | 94 pages (17090 words) | Theses
Civil Engineering | Co Authors: NWAOZURU

ABSTRACT

This Thesis is aimed at modeling of energy generation from municipal solid waste. The area of study is a densely populated urban environment dotted with public structures and institutions resulting in the generation of very high volume of refuse, the quality of municipal solid generated   are dependant to the social status and class of the individual households. Samples were randomly collected from 15 locations within the study area sorted and characterized. Moisture content of waste samples was 28.38%, density was 88.25 kg/m3 total energy content was 3075200 kJ giving unit energy content of waste as 30752 kJ/kg. Energy content on dry basis was 42937.37 kJ/kg while on ash-free dry basis, it gave 47588.37 kJ/kg. Chemical composition of the waste samples is carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Twenty years projected population of   354658 persons showed that 6.326 x 109 kJ of energy equivalent to 1.523109 x 109 Watt hour will be recovered from the waste generated by this population if it is effectively converted and managed. The very high quantity of energy generated by high volume of waste will also discourage indiscriminate dumping of refuse and associated environmental pollution It is therefore concluded that Municipal solid waste can be converted to useful energy for domestic and industrial usage.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover Page

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Certification                                                                                                                iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              vii

List of Figures                                                                                                             viii

Abstract                                                                                                                      ix

 

 

CHAPTER 1                                                                                                            1

            INTRODUCTION                                                                                        1

1.1       Background Of Study                                                                                                1

1.2       Statement Of Problems                                                                                   5

1.3       Aim And Objectives Of Study                                                                       5

1.4       Scope Of Study                                                                                              6

1.5       Significance Of Study                                                                                                6

 

CHAPTER 2                                                                                                            7

            LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                           7

2.1       Solid Waste Management                                                                               7

2.2       Functional Channels Of Solid Waste Management                                        12

2.2.1    Material generation and flow in the society                                                       12

2.2.2.   Metropolitan/domestic food solid waste                                                        14

2.2.3.   Agriculture organic solid waste                                                                      17

2.2.4.   Modern organic solid waste                                                                            18

2.2.5.   Treatment of organic waste                                                                            20

2.2.6.   Reduction in raw material usage                                                                     23

2.2.7.   Reduction in solid waste quantities                                                                23

2.2.8.   Recovery and reuse of solid waste materials                                                  23

2.3.      Properties Of Solid Waste                                                                              28

2.4       Solid Waste Disposal Methods                                                                       35

 

CHAPTER 3                                                                                                             40

            MATERIAL AND METHOD                                                                    40

3.1       Study Area                                                                                                      40

3.2       Materials And Methods                                                                                  42

3.3.      Mass Weight Of Samples                                                                               43

3.4       Dry Mass Of Samples                                                                                     43

3.5       Moisture Content                                                                                            43

3.6       Energy Content                                                                                               44

3.7       Chemical Content                                                                                           44

3.7.1    Computation of molar composition                                                                44

3.7.2    Determination of approximate chemical formula with or without sulphur     44

3.7.3    Computation of energy content of solid waste                                             45

3.7.4    Population projections                                                                        45    

3.8.1        Modeling of waste generation                                                                                    45

3.8.1    Calibration of model for relationship between generated energy and population                                                                                                      45

3.8.2        Verification of generated energy and population model.                               46

3.8.3        Calibration of generation waste and time                                                       46

3.8.4        Calibration of generated energy and time                                                      46

3.8.5        Verification of generated energy and time model                                          47

 

CHAPTER 4                                                                                                             48

            RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                  48

4.1.      Characterization Samples Of Municipal Solid Waste                         48

4.2.      Moisture Content                                                                                            49

4.3       Density Of Waste Sample                                                                              49

4.4       Energy Content                                                                                               50

4.5       Computation Of The Chemical Composition Of Municipal Solid Waste      52

4.5.1.   Molar composition of element in municipal solid waste                                                  53

4.5.2.   Determination of approximate chemical formula of MSW with and without sulfur                                                                                                                                     54

4.6       Modelling Of Energy From MSW And Population Projection                      55

4.6.1.   Population of umuahia north by 2016                                                           55

4.6.2.   Population projection                                                                                      55

4.6.3    Calibration of model for relationship between energy generated and population                                                                                                                                          57

4.6.4    Verification of generated energy and population model                                60

4.6.5    Calibration of waste generated  and time                                                       61

4.6.6    Verification of generated waste and time model                                           64

4.6.7    Calibration of relationship between energy generated and time                    66

4.6.8    Verification of generated energy and time model                                          68

 

CHAPTER 5                                                                                                             71

            CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                      71

5.1.      Conclusion                                                                                                      71

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          71

5.3     Contribution to Knowledge                                                                   71

REFERENCES                                                                                                        73

                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

2.1 Different types of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Umuahia North L.G.A. and their Sources.                                                                                                                                                10

2.2 Typical composition of municipal solid wastes                                                    32

2.3 Typical densities for solid wastes components and mixtures                                            33                   

4.1 Characteristics Samples of Municipal Solid Waste Based on 1000-kg of waste samples                                                                                                                                                            48

4.2 Based on 100-kg sample of waste                                                                                               50

4.3 Computation of the chemical composition of municipal solid waste                               52

4.4 Molar composition of elements in MSW                                                                          53

4.5 Computation of chemical formula of MSW with and without sulfur                              54

4.6 Experimental Data on Population, Waste Generated (kg) and Projected Energy  kJ in a year 2041.                                                                                                                                   57

4.7 Calibration of Relationship Between Energy Generated and Population                                    58

4.8 Verification of model for relationship between generated energy and predicted energy                                                                                                                                                                        61

4.9 Calibration of waste generated and time                                                                          63

4.10 Verification Model for waste generated and time                                                          65

4.11 Calibration of generated energy and time                                                                      67

4.12 Verification of model between generated energy and time                                           69

                                 LISTS OF FIGURES

2.1  Generalized flow of materials and the generation of solid wastes, recovery and reuse of waste material.                                                                                                                  22

3.1 Study area                                                                                                                         41

4.1 Verification graph for generated energy as a function of population                               62

4.2 Verification graph for waste generated model with time                                                 66

4.3 Verification graph of energy generated model with time                                                 70

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APA

FORTUNE, O (2023). Modeling Of Energy Generation From Municipal Solid Waste. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jun 23, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modeling-of-energy-generation-from-municipal-solid-waste-7-2

MLA 8th

OLIVER, FORTUNE. "Modeling Of Energy Generation From Municipal Solid Waste" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 10 Aug. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modeling-of-energy-generation-from-municipal-solid-waste-7-2. Accessed 23 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

OLIVER, FORTUNE. "Modeling Of Energy Generation From Municipal Solid Waste". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 10 Aug. 2023. Web. 23 Jun. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modeling-of-energy-generation-from-municipal-solid-waste-7-2 >.

Chicago

OLIVER, FORTUNE. "Modeling Of Energy Generation From Municipal Solid Waste" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 23 Jun. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modeling-of-energy-generation-from-municipal-solid-waste-7-2

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