Quality Parameters of Bread as affected by partial substitution of Fat with Bone Marrow from Cow's Femur Bone:- Chukwu Chidinma R

CHIDINMA RHODA | 90 pages (20769 words) | Projects
Food Science and Technology | Co Authors: CHUKWU

ABSTRACT

 Due to high cost of margarine which also reflected in the cost of bread, margarine was substituted with bone marrow in the ratios of 80: 20, 50.50 and 20: 80, while 100% margarine and bone marrow breads samples were controls. Together with other ingredients, the dough was formulated, proofed, molded, panned, proofed for 30 min, baked at 1800C for 35 min in the oven, cooled, wrapped and kept for analysis. Proximate, vitamin, mineral and the physical properties were evaluated with standard analytical methods. Sensory evaluation was carried out by subjective method while the energy values were by calculation. With increase in bone marrow substitution levels, fat (14.37-16.67%), ash (3.00-3.28%), protein (10.14-13.31%) and energy value (408.63- 425.49kcal/g) increased. While moisture content (12.66-11.06%), fibre (0.17-0.14%) and carbohydrate (59.70-55.56 %) decreased. For minerals, calcium (45.25-47.05 mg/g) and iron (1.13-1.21 mg/g) increased while sodium (4.31-3.80 mg/g), magnesium (12.65-11.30 mg/g) and potassium (10.60-9.33 mg/g) decreased. Vitamins Bl, thiamine, (0.33-0.50 mg/g), B2, riboflavin, (0.28-0.41 mg/g) and E (0.33-0.44 mg/g) increased while B3, niacin, (0. 17-0.1 4mg/g) and vitamin A ( 1.70-1.54mg/g) decreased. All the physical qualities evaluated, oven spring (0.55-0.60), loaf weight (345.60-349.88 g), volume (537.29-558.88 cm3), specific volume (1.56-1.60 cm3/g) and crumb & crust colour (3.25-3.64) increased. Maximum acceptability of7.70 was obtained from 80 margarine:20 bone marrow while the least accepted (7.15) was from 50 margarine: 50 bone marrow substitution levels. Bone marrow substitution of fat in bread baking is feasible and it actually improved the nutritional, energy and physical properties of the bread samples in most cases more than the control.

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APA

CHIDINMA, R (2024). Quality Parameters of Bread as affected by partial substitution of Fat with Bone Marrow from Cow's Femur Bone:- Chukwu Chidinma R. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jun 17, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/quality-parameters-of-bread-as-affected-by-partial-substitution-of-fat-with-bone-marrow-from-cows-femur-bone-chukwu-chidinma-r-7-2

MLA 8th

RHODA, CHIDINMA. "Quality Parameters of Bread as affected by partial substitution of Fat with Bone Marrow from Cow's Femur Bone:- Chukwu Chidinma R" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 17 May. 2024, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/quality-parameters-of-bread-as-affected-by-partial-substitution-of-fat-with-bone-marrow-from-cows-femur-bone-chukwu-chidinma-r-7-2. Accessed 17 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

RHODA, CHIDINMA. "Quality Parameters of Bread as affected by partial substitution of Fat with Bone Marrow from Cow's Femur Bone:- Chukwu Chidinma R". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 17 May. 2024. Web. 17 Jun. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/quality-parameters-of-bread-as-affected-by-partial-substitution-of-fat-with-bone-marrow-from-cows-femur-bone-chukwu-chidinma-r-7-2 >.

Chicago

RHODA, CHIDINMA. "Quality Parameters of Bread as affected by partial substitution of Fat with Bone Marrow from Cow's Femur Bone:- Chukwu Chidinma R" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2024). Accessed 17 Jun. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/quality-parameters-of-bread-as-affected-by-partial-substitution-of-fat-with-bone-marrow-from-cows-femur-bone-chukwu-chidinma-r-7-2

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