Morpho-Anatomical, Molecular, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of The ‘Epiflorous’ Plant (Phyllobotryon Spathulatum Müll.Arg.)

UWALAKA BERNARD NNABUIKE | 134 pages (28302 words) | Projects / Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Morphological and anatomical observation, cytological and molecular analysis, phytochemical, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potentials, toxicity, enzyme activity, and histopathological examination were carried out on the ‘epiflorous’ plant –Phyllobotyron spathulatum obtained from Cross River National Park, Akamkpa. Morphological characters were macroscopically observed and the following results recorded: Perennial, rarely branched erect shrub or tree up to 16ft high habit and terrestrial habitat. Cylindrical, hard, hairy brown stem. Lanceolate leaf about 65cm in length, serrate margin with small palm-like leaflet second outgrowth. ‘Epiflorous’ floral inflorescence on mature leaf midrib. Incomplete, white flower. Purple to yellow fruit nut, seed are five and white. Flowering and fruiting time is observed almost through all season. Venation is reticulate while rooting system is tapering with adventitious roots that support germination of new shoot. Observation of photomicrographs of the slides of the epidermal peel and anatomical sections showed the occurrence of hypostomatic and diacytic stomata with index of 28 and 20 in old and juvenile leaves respectively. Round epidermal circumference of stem adorned with trichome. Presence of starch sheath was observed just below the cortex of root and stem. Piths were less inconspicuous in stem and root. Chromosome number, determined through the squash method was observed to be 2n=22. Molecular extraction, purification, amplification and sequencing showed that the isolate of the plant sample have a band size of 650bp and BLAST result from NCBI data base got a pairwise identity (74.4) to Phyllobotryon spathulatum Müll.Arg. Phytochemical studies show that the root and leaf P. spathulatum contains these chemicals in appreciable quantity that has been recommended for various nutritional and pharmacological purposes. In vitro antimicrobial analysis using different solvent showed that the leaf of P. spathulatum possesses inhibitory activity through inhibition zone (IZ) against most of the tested pathogens at the various concentrations used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study revealed an MIC value of up to 6.25mg/ml and the corresponding MBC/MFC. In vivo anti-inflammatory studies using animal model tests showed that the plant extract at 200mg/kg concentration inhibited carrageenan induced paw oedema by 81% when compared to 0% in water and 92% in the standardized drug after 3days. Acute toxicity testing of the leaf of the plant showed that the extract was well tolerated at a dose of 2000 mg/kg as the animals showed no sign of toxicity or death after 72 hours. Sub-acute study using the relative weight as well as liver and kidney enzyme profile showed that the extract of the leaf of P. spathulatum at various concentrations did not significantly alter viscerosomatic index of the rats. Activity in the analyzed liver enzymes; aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and kidney enzymes; urea and creatinine were not affected as the extract concentration increased. Histopathological examination from the tissue slides did not show any changes in the features examined. Results obtained from this study can be employed in the identification, characterization, nutritional and pharmacological uses of this rarely known and underutilized plant

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APA

UWALAKA, N (2022). Morpho-Anatomical, Molecular, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of The ‘Epiflorous’ Plant (Phyllobotryon Spathulatum Müll.Arg.). Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Nov 30, 2022, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/morpho-anatomical-molecular-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-epiflorous-plant-phyllobotryon-spathulatum-mullarg-7-2

MLA 8th

NNABUIKE, UWALAKA. "Morpho-Anatomical, Molecular, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of The ‘Epiflorous’ Plant (Phyllobotryon Spathulatum Müll.Arg.)" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 23 Mar. 2022, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/morpho-anatomical-molecular-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-epiflorous-plant-phyllobotryon-spathulatum-mullarg-7-2. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

NNABUIKE, UWALAKA. "Morpho-Anatomical, Molecular, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of The ‘Epiflorous’ Plant (Phyllobotryon Spathulatum Müll.Arg.)". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 23 Mar. 2022. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/morpho-anatomical-molecular-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-epiflorous-plant-phyllobotryon-spathulatum-mullarg-7-2 >.

Chicago

NNABUIKE, UWALAKA. "Morpho-Anatomical, Molecular, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of The ‘Epiflorous’ Plant (Phyllobotryon Spathulatum Müll.Arg.)" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2022). Accessed 30 Nov. 2022. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/morpho-anatomical-molecular-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-epiflorous-plant-phyllobotryon-spathulatum-mullarg-7-2

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