Modification And Optimization Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Allanblackia (Allanblackia floribunda), African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) And Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Seed Oil Blend In Bakery Shortening Production

BARIWERE SAMUEL | 246 pages (64318 words) | Dissertations
Food Science and Technology | Co Authors: CHIBOR

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to modify the physicochemical properties of Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend by chemical interesterification, for use in bakery shortening production and to optimize the interesterification temperature, time and catalyst concentration using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Baking performance of the formulated shortenings were evaluated in bread, through physical/morphological and sensory properties. Oils were extracted using solvent (ethanol and hexane) and hot water floatation methods. Hot water floatation method gave oil yield of 43.40, 34.73 and 32.00 % for Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seeds respectively. Melting point and density were respectively 35.43 oC and 0.9145 g/ml, 17.13 oC and 0.9107 g/ml, 18.33 0C and 0.9166 g/ml for Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils. Refractive index (1.4750) of African walnut oil was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of Allanblackia and fluted pumpkin seed oils. Fluted pumpkin seed oil showed wider plasticity with solid fat content of 44.96 to 0.99 % at 5 to 50 0C. Iodine value, free fatty acid and saponification value ranged from 40.27 to 128.69 g/100g, 0.17 to 0.58 % and 152.03 – 199.98 mgKOH/g respectively. Iodine value of African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of Allanblackia seed oil. Allanblackia seed oil recorded 57.5 % total saturated fatty acids. African walnut oil contained 15.44 % omega-3 fatty acid. The fitted regression model for the response variables from RSM were significant (p<0.05) with C.V value of 0.266, 0.146, 0.502, 0.499, 0.602, 0.448 and 7.830 % and R2 of 96.8, 95.3, 94.2, 90.1, 99.5, 93.2 and 75.7 %, respectively for solid fat content, smoke point, melting point, density, viscosity, Iodine value and free fatty acid. Model lack-of-fit in all cases were desirably not significant (p>0.05). Predicted optimum condition and desirability index of 0.907 was obtained at 74.57 oC, 46.0 min and 0.278 % interesterification temperature, time and catalyst concentration, respectively. Melting point and FFA were reduced significantly after interesterification. Interesterified and non-interesterified margarine containing 60 – 70 % fat base received same overall acceptability with those of the commercial table margarine. Bakery shortenings produced with the optimum interesterified oils, non-interesterified oils, commercial bakery shortenings gave melting point of 32.53, 33.47, 42.70 and 40.10 oC, respectively. Specific gravity and viscosity ranged from 0.9117 to 0.9377 and 21.75 to 38.19 cSt, respectively. Great variation in microstructural morphology were apparent between all the bakery shortenings. Bread baked with interesterified, non-interesterified, local and imported commercial shortenings showed oven spring, loaf weight and specific volume ranging from 0.47 to 1.63 cm, 132.33 to 134.00 g and 3.49 – 3.52 cm3/g, respectively. Loaf from interesterified shortening was scored higher with respect to texture and overall acceptability. All the bread samples however, fell within the like moderately (7) to like very much (8). The interesterified and commercial shortenings showed good shelf stability after 120 days of storage at room temperature. Use of Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils in wide range of domestic and industrial applications, for cooking and food product development is highly recommended, based on their high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 and omega-3) which have cholesterol lowering properties.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                          Page

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                              ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Table of Content                                                                                                                     vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                          xiii

List of Figures                                                                                                                         xv

List of Plates                                                                                                                          xviii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xxii

 

CHAPTER 1:            INTRODUCTION                                                                                       

1.2                    Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.3                    Statement of the Problem                                                                               6

1.4                    Justification of Study                                                                                     6

1.4                   Objectives of the Study                                                                                  7

CHAPTER 2:            LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                          

2.1                   Bakery Shortening                                                                                          9

2.2                   Table Margarine                                                                                              10

2.3                   Fats and Oils                                                                                                   11

2.4                   Allanblackia as Oil Seed                                                                                 12

2.5                   Fluted Pumpkins as Oil Seed                                                                          16

2.6                   African Walnut                                                                                               18

2.7                   Oil Extraction and Refining                                                                           20

2.7.1                Oil extraction                                                                                                  20

2.7.2                Oil refining                                                                                                      21

2.8                   Fat Modification                                                                                             21

2.8.1                Hydrogenation                                                                                                            21

 2.8.2               Blending                                                                                                         22

2.8.3                Fractionation                                                                                                   23

2.8.4                Interesterification                                                                                            23

2.8.4.1             Chemical interesterification                                                                            24

2.8.4.2             Enzymatic interesterification                                                                          25

2.8.5                Genetic modification                                                                                      26

2.9                   Physicochemical Properties of Fats and Oils                                                  27

2.9.1                Refractive index                                                                                             27

2. 9.2               Density                                                                                                            27

2.9.3                Viscosity                                                                                                         27

2.9.4                Smoke point                                                                                                    27

2.9.5                Solid fat content                                                                                             28

2.9.6                Free fatty acid                                                                                                 28

2.9.7                Saponification value                                                                                       29

2.9.8                Iodine value (iv)                                                                                              29

2.9.9                Peroxide value                                                                                                30

2.9.10             Unsaponifiable matter                                                                                     30

2.9.11              Lipid composition                                                                                           30

2.10                 Crystallization: Nucleation and                                             

                        Crystal Growth                                                                                               31

2.11                 Polymorphism of Fat                                                                                      33

  2.12               Response Surface Methodology (RSM)                                                         33

2.12.1              Simultaneous optimization of response variables                                           36

2.13                 Bread                                                                                                              36

2.13.1              Physical and structural changes in bread during baking                                 37

2.13.2              Chemical transformations in bread during baking                                          37

CHAPTER 3:            MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                               

3.1                   Materials                                                                                                         39

3.1.1                Allanblackia seeds.                                                                                         39

3.1.2                Fluted pumpkins seeds                                                                                   39

3.1.3                African walnut                                                                                                39

3.1.4                Product control                                                                                               39

3.1.5                Chemicals and reagents                                                                                  39

3.2                   Oil Extraction and Percentage Fat Content                                                    40

3.2.1                Oil extraction (allanblackia, African walnut and                                          

                        fluted pumpkin seed oils)                                                                               40

3.2.2                Percentage fat content                                                                                    40

3.3                   Oil Analysis (Physical Properties)                                                                   41

3.3.1                Density.                                                                                                           41

3.3.2                Refractive index                                                                                             41

3.3.3                Slip melting point                                                                                            42

3.3.4                Cloud point                                                                                                     42

3.3.5                Viscosity                                                                                                         42

3.3.6               Colour                                                                                                             43

3.3.7                Smoke point                                                                                                    43

3.4                   Oil Analysis (Chemical Properties)                                                                 44

3.4.1                    Iodine value                                                                                                    44

3.4.2                    Free fatty acids                                                                                               44

3.4.3                    Saponification value                                                                                       45

3.4.4                    Peroxide value                                                                                                45

3.4.5                    Unsaponifiable matter                                                                                     46

3.4.6                    Ester value                                                                                                      47

3.5                    Fatty Acid Profile                                                                                           47

3.6                   Oil Blending                                                                                                   48

3.7                   Chemical Interesterification                                                                            48

3.8                   Bakery Shortening Production                                                                       48

3.9                   Physicochemical Properties of Bakery                                   

                        Shortenings Formulated from Interesterified

                        Blends of Allanblackia, Fluted Pumpkin And

                        African Walnut Oils.                                                                                      

3.9.1               Physical properties of bakery shortenings                                                       50

3.9.2                Solid fat content of bakery shortenings                                                          50

3.0.3               Chemical properties of bakery shortenings.                                                    50

3.10                 Elemental Composition of Bakery Shortenings                                              50

3.11                 Isothermal Crystallization Behaviour of

                        Bakery Shortenings                                                                                         51

3.12                 Microstructure Analysis of Bakery Shortenings

                        Using Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem)                                                  51

3.13                 Table (Spreadable) Margarine Production                                                      51

3.14                 Physicochemical Properties of Table Margarine                                             52

3.14.1             Refractive index (pv) of margarine                                                                 52

3.14.2             Slip melting point (smp) of Margarine                                                            53

3.14.3              Viscosity of table Margarine                                                                           53

3.14.4             Iodine value of margarine                                                                               54

3.14.5              Free fatty acid (ffa) of margarine                                                                   54

3.14.6              Peroxide value (pv) of margarine                                                                    55

3.14.7              pH of margarine                                                                                              55

3.15                Spreadability of Margarine                                                                             56

3.16                 Consistency of Margarine                                                                               56

3.17                 Sensory Evaluation of Table Margarine                                                          57

3.18                 Bread Production                                                                                            57

3.19                 Dough Proving Capacity                                                                                58

3.20                 Physical Properties of Bread                                                                           58

3.20.1              Loaf weight and height                                                                                  58

3.20.2              Loaf volume                                                                                                    58

3.20.3              Specific loaf volume                                                                                       58

3.20.4              Loaf density                                                                                                    59

3.20.5              Loaf weight loss                                                                                             59

3.20.6              Oven spring                                                                                                     59

3.20.7              Crumb moisture                                                                                              59

3.21                 Texture Profile Analysis of Bread                                                                  60

3.22                 Bread Crumb Pore Size Characteristics                                                          60

3.23                 Sensory Evaluation of Bread                                                                          60

3.24                 Changes in Physicochemical Properties of

                        Shortenings During Storage                                                                            61

3.25                 Statistical Analysis                                                                                          61

3.26                 Experimental Design                                                                                       61

CHAPTER 4:            RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                 

4.1       Percentage Oil Yield of Allanblackia, African

            Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seeds Extracted

            With Hexane, Ethanol and Hot Water Floatation.                                                     64

 

4.2       Physical Properties of Allanblackia, African Walnut And    

            Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils                                                                                          65

 

4.3       Effect of Temperature on The Solid Fat of Allanblackia,     

            African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                        71

 

4.4       Chemical Properties of Allanblackia, African Walnut And             

            Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.    

                                                                                                                                                73

4.5       Fatty Acid Profile of Allanblackia, African Walnut And     

            Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                                                         79

4.6       Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Solid Fat Content of the Samples using Response Surface Methodology.                81

 

4.7       Effect of Processing Conditions on the Solid Fat

            Content of the Samples                                                                                               84

 

4.8       Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Smoke Point of The Samples                                                                                      86

 

4.9       Effect of Processing Conditions on The Smoke Point Of     

            The Samples                                                                                                                89

 

4.10     Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Melting Point of the Samples                                                                                     91

 

4.11     Effect of Processing Conditions on The Melting Point Of   

            Samples Using RSM.                                                                                                  94

 

4.12     Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Density of The Samples                                                                                              95

 

4.13     Effect of Processing Conditions on The Density of the Samples                              98

4.14.    Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Viscosity f The Samples.                                                                                            99

 

4.15:    Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics For       

            Iodine Value of The Samples.                                                                                    101

 

4.16     Effect of Processing Conditions on The Iodine Value of the Samples.                     103

4.17     Estimated Regression Coefficient and Fit Statistics for       

            Free Fatty Acid Value of the Samples                                                                       104

 

4.18     Set Goals and Constraints for Numerical Optimization

            Of the Interesterification Variables and Responses,

             Based on Response Surface Methodology.                                                               106

4.19     Predicted Optimum Condition and Desirability Index For   

            The Samples using RSM                                                                                             108

 

4.20     Validation of Optimization for The Interesterification Of    

            Samples using RSM.                                                                                                   111

 

4.21     Physicochemical Properties of Interesterified Blends Of

            Allanblackia, African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed     

            Oils at Different Factor Combinations.                                                                      112

 

4.22     Physicochemical Properties of Table Margarine Produced

            from Interesterified And Non- Interesterified Blends of Allanblackia,

            African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                        115

 

4.23     Sensory Properties of Table Margarine Produced From        

            Interesterified And Non-Interesterified Blends of Allanblackia,

            African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                        121

4.24     Physical Properties of Bakery Shortenings Produced

            With    Optimum Interesterified And Non- Interesterified   

            Allanblackia, African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                  124

 

4.25     Effect of Temperature on The Solid Fat Of Bakery  

            Shortening Produced from Interesterified And Non-Interesterified

            Allanblackia, African Walnut And

            Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                                                         128

4.26     Chemical Properties of Bakery Shortenings Produced          

            With Optimum Interesterified and Non-Interesterified

            Allanblackia, African Walnut and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                  131

                                                                                                                       

4.27     Fatty Acid Profile of Bakery Shortenings Produced from    

            Interesterified And Non-Interesterified Allanblackia, African Walnut

            And Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils.                                                                                 135

 

4.28     Elemental Content (Mg/Kg) Of Interesterified, Non-            Interesterified

            And Commercial Bakery Shortenings using Energy Dispersive X-Ray

            Fluorescence Spectrometry.                                                                                        138

 

4.29     Isothermal Crystallization Behaviour of Bakery

            Shortenings Produced from Interesterified And

             Non-   Interesterified Allanblackia, African Walnut and     

            Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil Blends.                                                                              140

 

4.30     Morphological Characteristics of Interesterified, Non-         

            Interesterified and Commercial Bakery Shortenings.                                                 145

 

4.31     Proving Capacity of Dough Prepared with Interesterified,

            Non-Interesterified and Commercial Bakery Shortening.                                          151

 

4.32     Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Interesterified,

            Non-Interesterified and Commercial, Bakery Shortenings.                                       153

 

4.33     Texture Profile of Bread Produced from Interesterified,      

            Non-Interesterified And Commercial Bakery Shortenings.                                       158     

4.34     Photo Images and Microstructure of Bread Crumb   Produced        

            With Interesterified, Non-Interesterified And          

            Commercial Bakery Shortenings.                                                                               162

 

4.35     Sensory Properties of Bread Produced with Interesterified,

            Non-Interesterified And Commercial Bakery Shortenings.                                       168

 

4.36     Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Bakery    

            Shortenings Produced from Interesterified and

            Non-Interesterified Allanblackia, African Walnut

            And Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oils During Storage.                                                       171

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                              

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  181

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                                      183

5.3.      Contributions to Knowledge                                                                                      184

            References                                                                                                                  185

            Appendices                                                                                                                 208

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

                                                                                                                                           Page

3.1       CCD Design matrix for chemical interesterification of

            Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                      62

3.2       Experimental range and levels of the independent variables

            for chemical interesterification                                                                                   63

4.1       percentage (%) oil yield of Allanblackia, African walnut

            and fluted pumpkin seeds                                                                                           64

4.2       Physical properties of Allanblackia, African walnut and

            fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                                                             66

 

4.3       Chemical properties of allanblackia, African walnut and

            fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                                                             74

 

4.4       Fatty acid profile of Allanblackia, African walnut

            and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                                                      79

4.5       Estimated regression coefficient for solid fat content (SFC)

            of the samples using rsm                                                                                             82

 

4.6       Estimated regression coefficient for smoke point of the samples using rsm              86

 

4.7       Estimated regression coefficient for melting point (MP) of the samples using rsm   92

 

4.8       Estimated regression coefficient for density (Dn) of the samples using rsm             96

 

4.9       Estimated regression coefficient for viscosity (Vs) of                                                           the samples using rsm                                                                                                         100

 

4.10     Estimated regression coefficient for iodine value of the samples using rsm              102

 

4.11     Estimated regression coefficient for percentage free fatty acid of

            the samples using rsm                                                                                                 105

 

4.12     Set goals and constraints for numerical optimization of

            variables and responses for the interesterification of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils based on                                

            response surface methodology                                                                                    107

4.13     Predicted optimum condition and desirability index for the                                      interesterification of Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin

            seed oils based on response surface methodology                                                      109

4.14     Validation of optimization for the interesterification of Allanblackia,                                  African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils based on response                                surface methodology                                                                                                  111

 

4.15     Physicochemical properties of interesterified blends of Allanblackia,                                   African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils at different factor                                combinations                                                                                                               113

 

4.16     Physicochemical properties of table margarine produced from                                              interesterified and non-interesterified blend

            of Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                  118

4.17     Sensory properties of table margarine produced from interesterified                                    and non-interesterified blend of Allanblackia, African walnut and                             fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                                                             122

 

4.18     Physical properties of bakery shortenings produced with optimum                           interesterified sample, non-interesterified sample and commercial                           shortening                                                                                                                   126

 

4.19     Chemical properties of bakery shortenings produced with optimum                                     interesterified and non- interesterified Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils.                                                           132

4.20     Fatty acid profile of bakery shortenings produced with optimum                                         interesterified and non- interesterified Allanblackia, African walnut

            and fluted pumpkin seed oils.                                                                                     136

4.21     Elemental content (mg/kg) of interesterified, non-interesterified and                                   commercial bakery shortening using energy dispersive x-ray                                            fluorescence spectrometry                                                                                          139

 

4.22     Proving capacity (cm3) of dough prepared with interesterified,

            non-interesterified and commercial bakery shortenings                                             152

 

4.23     Physical properties of bread produced from interesterified

            and non-interesterified bakery shortening                                                                  155

4.24     Texture profile of bread produced from interesterified, non-                                    interesterified and commercial bakery shortenings.                                                          159

 

4.25     Sensory properties of bread produced from interesterified,

            non-interesterified and commercial bakery shortenings                                             169

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

      Page

 

3.1       Flow diagram for bakery shortening production                                                        49

4.1       Effect of temperature on the solid fat of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                            72

4.2       Effect of interesterification time (x2) and catalyst

            concentration (x3) on percentage solid fat content

            of Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin

            seed oil blend.                                                                                                             84

 

4.3       Effect of interesterification temperature (x1) and time (x2)

            on the smoke point of Allanblackia, African walnut and

            fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                                                                88

4.4       effect of interesterification temperature (x1) and catalyst

            concentration (x3) on the smoke point of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                    89

 

4.5       Effect of interesterification time (x2) and catalyst

            concentration (x3) on the smoke point of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                    90

4.6       Effect of interesterification temperature (x1) and time (x2)

            on the melting point of Allanblackia, African walnut and

            fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                                                                94

 

4.7       Effect of interesterification time (x2) and catalyst

            concentration (x3) on the density of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                    98

 

4.8       Effect of interesterification temperature (x1) and time (x2)

            on the iodine value (iv) of Allanblackia, African walnut

            and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                                             103

4.9       Effect of interesterification time (x2) and catalyst

            concentration (x2) on the iodine value (IV) of Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin   seed oil blend                                                  104

 

4.10     Effect of temperature on the solid fat of bakery shortening produced                                  from interesterified and non-interesterified Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils.                                                           129

 

4.11     Isothermal crystallization behaviour of interesterified bakery

            shortening at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oc.                                                             141

 

4.12     Isothermal crystallization behaviour of non-interesterified

            bakery shortening at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oc.                                                  142

 

4.13     Isothermal crystallization behaviour of commercial bakery                                        shortening (local) at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oc.                                                           143

 

4.14:    Isothermal crystallization behaviour of imported commercial bakery                                    shortening (imported) at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oc.                                     144

 

4.15:    Changes in solid fat content during storage at room temperature                              (28±20c)                                                                                                                      172

                                                                                                           

4.16     Changes in slip melting point during storage at room                                                            temperature             (28±2 oc)                                                                                             173

 

4.17     Changes in smoke point during storage at room                                                                     temperature             (28±2 oc)                                                                                             174

 

4.18     Changes in free fatty acid content during

            storage at room temperature (28±2 oc)                                                                        175

 

4.19     Changes in peroxide value during storage at room                                                     temperature             (28±2 oc)                                                                                             176

 

4.20     Changes in iodine value during storage at room                                                                     temperature             (28±2 oc)                                                                                             177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF PLATES

       Page

 

2.1       Fruit, seeds and tree of Allanblackia floribunda                                                        16

2.2       Fluted pumpkin fruit and seeds.                                                                                 17

2.3       African walnuts                                                                                                          20

4.1       Table margarine produced from interesterified Allanblackia,

            African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                            116

4.2       Table margarine produced from non-interesterified Allanblackia,                                         African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oils                                                              117

4.3       Bakery shortenings produced from Allanblackia, African                                                     walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blends (interesterified

            and non-interesterified) and the commercial bakery shortenings

            (local and imported)                                                                                                    125

4.4       Microstructure of bakery shortening produced from interesterified                          Allanblackia, African walnut and fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                            146

4.5       Microstructure of bakery shortening produced from

            non-interesterified Allanblackia, African walnut and

            fluted pumpkin seed oil blend                                                                                    147

4.6       Microstructure of local commercial bakery shortening                                               148

4.7       Microstructure of imported commercial bakery shortening                                        149

4.8       Dough samples before proving                                                                                   154

4.9       Dough samples after proving                                                                                      154

4.10     Bread samples after baking                                                                                         154

4.11     Photo image of bread crumb produced from interesterified bakery                           shortening.                                                                                                                  163

4.12     Microstructure of bread crumb produced from interesterified

            bakery shortening                                                                                                        163

4.13     Photo image of bread crumb produced from non-interesterified

            bakery shortening.                                                                                                       164

4.14     Microstructure of bread crumb produced from non-interesterified                            bakery shortening                                                                                                            164

4.15     Photo image of bread crumb produced from local

            commercial bakery shortening.                                                                                   165

4.16     Microstructure of bread crumb produced from local

            commercial bakery shortening.                                                                                   165

4.17     Photo image of bread crumb produced from imported commercial                           bakery shortening.                                                                                                            166

4.18     Microstructure of bread crumb produced from imported commercial                                   bakery shortening.                                                                                                      166

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF EQUATIONS

Page

2.1                   Fatty acid                                                                                                        11

3.1                   Fat content                                                                                                      41

3.2                   Density of oil                                                                                                  41

3.3                   Refractometer reading                                                                                                41

3.4                   Kinematic viscosity                                                                                         43

3.5                   Iodine value                                                                                                    44

3.6                   Free fatty acid                                                                                                 45

3.7                   Saponification value                                                                                       45

3.8                   Peroxide value                                                                                                46

3.9                   Unsaponifiable matter                                                                                     47

3.10                 Ester value                                                                                                      47

3,11                 Solid fat content                                                                                             50

3.12                 Refractive index                                                                                             52

3.13                 Viscosity                                                                                                         54

3.14                 Iodine value                                                                                                    54

3.15                 Free fatty acid                                                                                                 55

3.16                 Peroxide value                                                                                                55

3.17                 Spreadability                                                                                                   56

3.18                 Consistency                                                                                                     57

3.19                 Specific loaf volume                                                                                       58

3.20                 Loaf density                                                                                                    59

3.21                 Loaf weight loss                                                                                             59

3.22                 Crumb moisture                                                                                              59

3.23                 CCD regression model                                                                                    62

4.1                   Solid fat content regression model                                                                 83

4.2                   Smoke point regression model                                                                        87

4.3                   Melting point regression model                                                                      94

4.4                   Density regression model                                                                                99

4.5                   Viscosity regression model                                                                             104

4.6                   Iodine value regression model                                                                        106

4.7                   Free fatty acid regression model                                 

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APA

BARIWERE, S (2023). Modification And Optimization Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Allanblackia (Allanblackia floribunda), African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) And Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Seed Oil Blend In Bakery Shortening Production . Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved May 24, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modification-and-optimization-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-allanblackia-allanblackia-floribunda-african-walnut-tetracarpidium-conophorum-and-fluted-pumpkin-telfairia-occidentalis-seed-oil-blend-in-bakery-shortening-production-7-2

MLA 8th

SAMUEL, BARIWERE. "Modification And Optimization Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Allanblackia (Allanblackia floribunda), African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) And Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Seed Oil Blend In Bakery Shortening Production " Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 27 Jul. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modification-and-optimization-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-allanblackia-allanblackia-floribunda-african-walnut-tetracarpidium-conophorum-and-fluted-pumpkin-telfairia-occidentalis-seed-oil-blend-in-bakery-shortening-production-7-2. Accessed 24 May. 2024.

MLA7

SAMUEL, BARIWERE. "Modification And Optimization Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Allanblackia (Allanblackia floribunda), African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) And Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Seed Oil Blend In Bakery Shortening Production ". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 27 Jul. 2023. Web. 24 May. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modification-and-optimization-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-allanblackia-allanblackia-floribunda-african-walnut-tetracarpidium-conophorum-and-fluted-pumpkin-telfairia-occidentalis-seed-oil-blend-in-bakery-shortening-production-7-2 >.

Chicago

SAMUEL, BARIWERE. "Modification And Optimization Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Allanblackia (Allanblackia floribunda), African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) And Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Seed Oil Blend In Bakery Shortening Production " Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 24 May. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/modification-and-optimization-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-allanblackia-allanblackia-floribunda-african-walnut-tetracarpidium-conophorum-and-fluted-pumpkin-telfairia-occidentalis-seed-oil-blend-in-bakery-shortening-production-7-2

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