Effect ofMunicipal Solid waste Generation and Management on the Incidence and Spread of Some Diseases in Port Harcourt, Nigeria:- Samuel, Nubaridoo S.

NUBARIDOO SUNNY | 165 pages (34565 words) | Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Five residential areas in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, were chosen based on the density of their populations and sanitary conditions. These included high density, medium density, low density (GRA) areas, Market place and refuse disposal sites. They were studied to determine the effects of municipal solid waste generation and methods of management on disease incidence and health status of the residents. The major disease vectors namely house flies (Musa domestica), mosquitoes (Anopheles) were trapped using electric insect killers, dried and counted in the mornings and at night forthree months. Questionnaires were subsequently administered to selected residents ofthe city to assess the frequency ofmalaria disease attack within the families, within one year, and also to selected Doctors in 7 hospitals and health clinics on the daily reports of number of cases of malaria, Typhiod, Diarrhoea, upper respiratory tract infection, HIV/AIDS and other diseases in the city, traceable to dirty environment. The annual financial implications for providing cure and treatment for the afflicted patients were computed from records obtained prior this health outfit, vis-a-vis the cost of municipal waste management in the city; from the waste disposal Board. Furthermore, soils and plants within the various waste disposal sites were collected, dried, ground and analysed for heavy metal content Finally, a haematological assay of the blood, urine etc ofsome selected Municipal urban refuse worker was made to determine their health status, with regard to, the presence ofwaste — related infections ofthem. The results showed significant difference in the population ofthe various vectors in the different localities. There were 464.0±163.6 mosquitoes/m'2/night in high density area, 177.5±56.8 in medium, 41.4 ± 16.2 in low density, 545.8 ± 175.9 in market place and 247.1±109.5 in refuse disposal site. Similarly, there were 332.0 ± 154.1 house flies/m'2/night in high density areas, 178.6 ± 80.4 in medium, 26.5 ± 12.3 in low density area, 782.9 ± 350.3 in market place and 830.2 ± 371.8/m‘2/night in refuse dump site. At day period, mosquitoes found were 110.5 ± 16.3/m’ 2/day in high density area, 53.7±5.0m medium, 5.4±0.9 in the low density area, 156.0±32.6 in market place and 97.7 ± 58.4/m'2/day in refuse dump site. On the other hand, houseflies found were 643.1±127.3/m'2/day in high density area, 352.5±45.9 in medium, 49.9±14.4 in low density area, 1555.9±126.8 in the market place and 1659.0 ± 65.7/m‘2/day in the refuse dump site, while 332.0±154.0 houseflies/m‘2/night were found in high density area, 178.6±80.4/m’2/night in medium, 26.6±12.3 in the low density area (GRA), 782.9±350.3 in the market place and 830.2±371.8 flies/m'2/night in the refuse dump site. Response to the questionnaires from the doctors showed that daily reported cases ofthe various diseases were 69% malaria, 10%, 2% and 5% respectively for Typhoid, Diarrhoea and Upper respiratoiy tract infections. HIV/AIDS had only 0.002%, while all other diseases had 14%. Residents of Port Harcourt spend 2 billion naira/annum for the treatment of malaria alone and a loss of 40.2 million mandays. Typhoid cost N13.5m and diarrhea N2.01m annually, in addition to xvi loss of5.6 million and 10.1 million mandays annually respectively. The city generates 160m tons of municipal solid wastes daily (58560m3 tons annually) at a cost of N180m monthly and N2.16 billion annually. Heavy metals accumulation in soils showed Pb (3251.5%), Zn (338.3%), Cu (181.4%) and Fe (109.7%) higher in refuse dump site, over all the other areas. The commonest heavy metals incorporated into stem/root of plant (Gmelina arborea) were Pb, Zn and Fe, with Fe being the highest in concentration (169.8%) than Pb (128.1%) and Zn (115.2%) the lowest. Response to questionnaires by residents on the management of municipal solid wastes showed disposal ofrefuse through collection centres (76%), in rivers (13.5%) and other unregulated means (10.5%). While methods used against water borne diseases showed, chlorine (27%)/filtration (6.3%), boiling water, (25.4%) use of Alum (0.6%) and no treatment at all (65.1). Municipal Solid Waste Worker’s engaged for 1 year are infested commonly with Staphylococcus bacteria and have a drop in Haemoglobin level (12.8g/100mls), with a low blood count (37.6%) than others in other areas of employment. These results show that poor management of municipal solid waste has both significant health and economic effects on residents of Port Harcourt. Hence, it could be be recommended as follows:- that the current emphasis on use of insect-treated nets be sustained; and more emphasis tilted towards malaria eradication and less to HIV/AIDS, the preponderance of which at very low (0.002%). Refuse workers should be provided with adequate medication and protective equipments especially, on regular basis (monthly) to protect them from constant Staphylococcus infection and other infections. Extreme care should be exercised in using/disposal of water, plants and soils within the waste dumps to avoid heavy metal poisoning. To reduce huge sums of money expended on waste management, greater personal and group hygiene is advocated as well as appropriate recycling schemes to reduce the volume ofwastes, especially at the generation points.

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APA

NUBARIDOO, S (2024). Effect ofMunicipal Solid waste Generation and Management on the Incidence and Spread of Some Diseases in Port Harcourt, Nigeria:- Samuel, Nubaridoo S.. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved May 20, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-ofmunicipal-solid-waste-generation-and-management-on-the-incidence-and-spread-of-some-diseases-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-samuel-nubaridoo-s-7-2

MLA 8th

SUNNY, NUBARIDOO. "Effect ofMunicipal Solid waste Generation and Management on the Incidence and Spread of Some Diseases in Port Harcourt, Nigeria:- Samuel, Nubaridoo S." Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 18 Apr. 2024, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-ofmunicipal-solid-waste-generation-and-management-on-the-incidence-and-spread-of-some-diseases-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-samuel-nubaridoo-s-7-2. Accessed 20 May. 2024.

MLA7

SUNNY, NUBARIDOO. "Effect ofMunicipal Solid waste Generation and Management on the Incidence and Spread of Some Diseases in Port Harcourt, Nigeria:- Samuel, Nubaridoo S.". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 18 Apr. 2024. Web. 20 May. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-ofmunicipal-solid-waste-generation-and-management-on-the-incidence-and-spread-of-some-diseases-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-samuel-nubaridoo-s-7-2 >.

Chicago

SUNNY, NUBARIDOO. "Effect ofMunicipal Solid waste Generation and Management on the Incidence and Spread of Some Diseases in Port Harcourt, Nigeria:- Samuel, Nubaridoo S." Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2024). Accessed 20 May. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-ofmunicipal-solid-waste-generation-and-management-on-the-incidence-and-spread-of-some-diseases-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-samuel-nubaridoo-s-7-2

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