Effect Of Date Seed Granules On The Mechanical Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite

SUNDAY UDOCHI WINSOUL | 31 pages (7681 words) | Projects

ABSTRACT

In this study, Date Seed Granulated Powder (DSGP) was used as a reinforcement material for Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy resin (GFRE) composite. Specifically, the DSGP was prepared and added to Glass fibre reinforced Epoxy composite using the hand lay-up method. The DSGP reinforced GFRE was produced in different weight ratios of 0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % wt. The mechanical properties of the developed specimens of the DSGP reinforced GFRE composite were investigated using the universal INSTRON tensile machine, flexural testing equipment, Izod impact testing machine (ASTM D256 standard) and Rockwell Hardness testing machine for hardness test. Results of the tests showed maximum values of tensile strength, flexural strength and Hardness Number as 271 MPa, 241 MPa and 97 HRB for the 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10 % wt. GDS samples respectively. Energy absorption capacity (U in Joules) of the samples were also determined. From the results obtained, the best variation of the reinforcement of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy with Date seed granules is the GFR-40 % wt. GDS composition. This study therefore proves that Glass fibre –Date seed reinforced composites are good alternatives to Glass fibre composites, since they gave higher mechanical properties at lower cost.

TABLE OF CONTENTS`

TITLE                                                                                                                        PAGE NO

Cover Page                                                                                                                              i

Title Page                                                                                                                               ii

Declaration                                                                                                                             iii

Certification                                                                                                                            iv

Dedication                                                                                                                              v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  vi

Table of content                                                                                                               vii-viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix

List of figures                                                                                                                        x

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xii

           

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                         

1.1 Background of the study                                                                                                  1

1.2 Statement of Problem                                                                                                    2

1.3 Aim and Objectives                                                                                                          2         

1.4 Justification                                                                                                                       3

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Date fruit                                                                                                                        4

2.1.1 Description and Use                                                                                                      4

2.2   Flexural, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of date palm

         fibres reinforced epoxy composites                                                                               5

2.3  Eco-friendly date-seed nanofillers for polyethylene terephthalate                                  6

      composite reinforcement    

2.4    Date palm seed as suitable filler material in glass–epoxy composites                           6

 

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Materials                                                                                                                     8

3.1.1    Date Seed Extraction and Preparation                                                                       8         

3.1.2    Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Preparation                                                                9

3.1.3 Material Preparation                                                                                                       9

3.1.4    Percentage Composition Analysis                                                                              9

3.2       Methods                                                                                                                      11

3.2.1    Lignocellulose Characterization of the Date Seed Powder                                        11

3.2.2    Composite Manufacturing Method                                                                            13

3.2.3    Experimental Procedure for manufacturing the Laminate                                          13

3.2.4    Reinforcement of Glass fibre                                                                                      15

3.2.5    Specimen Preparation                                                                                                 15

3.4    Mechanical Tests                                                                                                            16

3.4.1        Tensile Test                                                                                                                 16

3.4.3    Bending Test                                                                                                               17

3.4.4    Impact Test                                                                                                                 18

3.4.5    Hardness Test                                                                                                             19

3.5 Physical characterization                                                                                                   20

3.5.1  Bulk density                                                                                                                  20

3.5.2   Particle density                                                                                                            21

3.5.3 Total porosity                                                                                                                 21

 

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Results                                                                                                                        22

4.2       Discussion                                                                                                                   22

4.2.1    Tensile Test Result                                                                                                     22

4.2.2    Flexural Test Result                                                                                                    24

4.2.3    Impact Test Result                                                                                                      25       

4.2.4    Hardness Test Result                                                                                                  29

4.3  Physical characterization                                                                                                  31

4.3.1 Bulk density                                                                                                                   31

4.3.2 Particle density                                                                                                              32

4.4 Results                                                                                                                              32

4.4.1 Physical characterization                                                                                                32

4.4.2 Particle size distribution                                                                                                 33

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                                                    34

5.1.1    Contributions To Knowledge                                                                                     34

5.1.2    Recommendations                                                                                                      35

References                                                                                                                              36

                       

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

3.1: Weight Variation of each Test Piece                                                                               10

4.1: Tensile Strength Result                                                                                                    22

4.2: Bending test Analysis                                                                                                      23

4.4a: indentation values (mm)                                                                                                 29

4.3b: The Hardness test Result of the various Specimens                                                      30

 

 

 


 

LIST OF FIGURES

3.2a: The final preparation of the Glass fibre reinforced Epoxy

 resin composite specimen for mechanical test                                                 16

3.8: The Instron Universal testing machine (for compressive and tensile test)                       17

3.9: Experimental setup of the flexural bending test                                                              18

3.10: The Izod impact testing machine                                                                                   19

3.11: The Hardness testing machine                                                                                       20

4.2: Comparative Tensile strengths of the different compositions                                         23

4.3: Comparative Flexural strengths of the different compositions                                        24

4.4a: Comparative impact strengths of the different compositions                                        27

4.4c: Energy Absorption capacity of the different compositions                                           28

4.5: Comparative Hardness values of the specimen                                                               31

 

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APA

SUNDAY, W (2023). Effect Of Date Seed Granules On The Mechanical Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jul 16, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-of-date-seed-granules-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-glass-fibre-reinforced-epoxy-composite-7-2

MLA 8th

WINSOUL, SUNDAY. "Effect Of Date Seed Granules On The Mechanical Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-of-date-seed-granules-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-glass-fibre-reinforced-epoxy-composite-7-2. Accessed 16 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

WINSOUL, SUNDAY. "Effect Of Date Seed Granules On The Mechanical Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023. Web. 16 Jul. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-of-date-seed-granules-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-glass-fibre-reinforced-epoxy-composite-7-2 >.

Chicago

WINSOUL, SUNDAY. "Effect Of Date Seed Granules On The Mechanical Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 16 Jul. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/effect-of-date-seed-granules-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-glass-fibre-reinforced-epoxy-composite-7-2

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