Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meals.

EFFIONG OKON | 76 pages (19505 words) | Theses
Animal Production | Co Authors: EKEREUKE

ABSTRACT

A 49-day feeding trial involving 150 one week old Marshall broilers' chicks was' conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass, haematological, serum biochemical profile and economic characteristics of broiler fed Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal (VALM) at the starter and finisher phases. After one week of brooding, the birds were assigned to five dietary treatment groups of 30 birds per treatment and IO birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. The birds were fed diets containing varying levels of VALM at 0.00, 2.50. 5.00, 7.50 and 10.00% designated as diet D,, D;, D;, D, and D; respectively, for starter phase while diets with 0.00, 3.00, 6.00, 9.00 and 12.00% of VALM were designated as diet D,, D,, D;, D, and D; respectively for the finisher phase. The birds were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and weekly thereafter. Experimental diets and water were offered ad libitum. At 8 weeks of age, two birds per replicate were weighed and slaughtered for carcass evaluation while blood was collected from the jugular vein of two birds per replicate for haematology and serum biochemical test. Growth performance and cost of production were assessed for starter broiler chicks while growth performance, economics of production, carcass, organ characteristics, haematology and serum biochemical values were assessed for the finisher birds at the end of the experiment. The result of the experiment showed that the final live weights of birds fed D, (777.56g), D» (730.00g) and D, (704.07g) were similar (P>0.05) but significantly higher than the final live weight of birds fed D, (506.67g). The ADG of birds fed D, (29.77g), D, (37.62g) and D; (26.39g) were similar but significantly {P<0.05) higher than that of birds fed D4 (21.08g) and D; (16.98g). The FCR for birds fed diets D,, D;, D; and D, were similar (P>0.05) but significantly (P<0.05) lower than the FCR of birds fed diet Ds for the finisher phase. At I 0% of V ALM, 0% mortality was achieved at the starter phase while for the finisher level, 0% mortality was achieved at 12% inclusion of V ALM. Birds fed D, and 02 had significantly higher (P<0.05) live weight, eviscerated weight and dressing percentage than birds fed Dy, D, and D%. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observes for all cut part as expressed in percentage live weight except Breast cut and Neck only were statistically similar (P>0.05). Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in organs as expressed in live weight except Intestine. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among treatment means for all the haematological parameters measured except haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) value which were similar (P>0.05) to one another. The cholesterol values for D,, D,, D, and D4 were 104.00, 93.66, 90.99, 88.SOmg/dl were similar (P>0.05) but significantly (P<0.05) higher than the value for D, (71.56mg/dl). The results of this feeding trial suggest that VALM could be incorporated in broiler diet up to 5.00% for broiler starter chickens and 3.00% for broiler finisher chickens.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Tables

Abstract

II

Ill

IV

V

VI

VIII

IX

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

I. I Background lnfonnation

1.2 Objectives of Study 2

1.3 Statement of Problem 2

1.4 Justification 3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Taxonomy and Botany of Bitter Leaf

2.2 Origin and Geographic Distribution

2.3 Ecology of Vernonia amygdalina

2.4 Nutrient and Chemical Composition of Vernonia amygdalina

Leaf Meal (V ALM) S

4

4

s

2.5 Health Benefits of Bitter Leaf 7

2.6 Potency of Bitter Leaf Preparation 8

2.7 Blood 9

2.7.1 Blood chemistry 9

2.7.2 Haematological indices 12

2.8 Importance of Carcass Quality 13

2.9 Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Leaf Meals in Poultry Nutrition and Feeding 14

2.10 Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Bitter Leaf Meal in Poultry Nutrition and Feeding 18

CHAPTER 3 MA TE RIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Experimental Site

3.2 Source of Feed Ingredients and Experimental Birds

vi

21

21

3 .3 Experimental Birds and Management Processing

3.4 Sources and Processing of the Bitter Leaf Meal

3.5 Experimental Diet and Processing of the Bitter Leaf Meal

3.6 Blood Profile

3.7 Organ/carcass Evaluation

3.8 Economics of Production

3.9 Experimental Design

21

22

22

22

23

23

24

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Proximate Composition of Experimental Diet for Broiler Starter Chicks 28

4.2 Proximate Composition of Experimental Diets and Test Ingredient for Broiler

Finisher Birds 28

4.3 Starter Phase 28

4.3.1 Body weight changes 28

4.3.2 Average daily weight gain

4.3.3 Average daily feed intake

4.3.4 Feed conversion ratio

4.3.5 Mortality

4.4 Finisher Phase

4.4.1 Body weight changes

4.4.2 Feed conversion ratio

4.5 Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Birds Fed V ALM

4.6 Organ Weights (expressed as% of dressed weight) of Broiler Finisher

Birds fed Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Meal Diets

4.7 Haematological Indices of Broiler Birds Fed VALM

4.8 Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Finisher Birds Fed V ALM

4.9 Cost Analysis of Starter Broiler Chick Fed VALM ·

4.10 Economics of Production of Broiler Finisher Chicks Fed Vernonia

amygdalina Leaf Meal Diets

32

34

34

35

36

36

37

39

39

40

44

48

51

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 54

REFERENCES

56

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page,

2.1 Shows the mean and normal range of haematology indices of blood for

broiler chickens 16

3.1 Composition of experimental diet for broiler starter 25

3.2 Composition of experimental diet for broiler finisher 26

4.1 Proximate composition of experimental diet for starter chicks 30

4.2 Proximate composition of experimental diets and test ingredient for

broiler finisher chick 31

4.3 Growth Perfonnance of starter broiler chicks fed experimental diets 33

4.4 Growth performance of finisher broiler chicks fed experimental diets 38

4.5 Carcass characteristics of broiler finisher birds fed varying

levels of Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal diets 41

4.6 Organ weights (expressed as % of live weight) of broiler finisher

birds fed Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal diets 43

4.7 Haematological indices of broiler birds fed V ALM 4S

4.8 Serum biochemical values of finisher broilers fed V ALM 49

4.9 Cost analysis of starter broilers fed Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal so

4.10 Economics of production of finisher broilers fed Vernonia amygdalina

leaf meal

53 

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APA

EFFIONG, O (2023). Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meals. . Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jun 18, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/performance-of-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-bitter-leaf-vernonia-amygdalina-meals-7-2

MLA 8th

OKON, EFFIONG. "Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meals. " Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 28 Jul. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/performance-of-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-bitter-leaf-vernonia-amygdalina-meals-7-2. Accessed 18 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

OKON, EFFIONG. "Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meals. ". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 28 Jul. 2023. Web. 18 Jun. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/performance-of-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-bitter-leaf-vernonia-amygdalina-meals-7-2 >.

Chicago

OKON, EFFIONG. "Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing varying levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meals. " Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 18 Jun. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/performance-of-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-bitter-leaf-vernonia-amygdalina-meals-7-2

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