Chemical And Nutritional Evaluation Of Icacina mannii (Earth Ball) Meals In The Diet Of Weaner Pigs

ASSAM | 195 pages (45156 words) | Dissertations
Animal Production | Co Authors: EKENO MICHAEL

ABSTRACT

Four experiments were conducted to determine the chemical and nutritional potentials of Icacina mannii meal as an alternative energy source for weaner pigs. Experiment 1 investigated the proximate, gross energy, anti-nutritional factors and mineral compositions of the raw Icacina mannii meals (RO), Icacina mannii meals pressed with oil (IPO), Icacina mannii meals pressed and toasted (IPT), and fermented and pressed Icacina manni meal (FPI) and metabolizable energy of raw and variously processed Icacina mannii meal were determined using 12 hybrids cross bred growing pigs with a weight range of 26-30kg. In experiment 2, the level of 5% inclusion of raw Icacina mannii meal in weaner pig’s diet was determined. Experiment 3 evaluated the performance of weaner pigs fed diets in which maize component was replaced by IPO, IPT and FPI at 6% raw inclusion level. Experiment 5 determined the dietary inclusion level of fermented and pressed Icacina mannii meals (FPI) in weaner pig’s diet. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design consisting of three replicates with two (2) weaner pigs per replicate. In experiment 1, the proximate and mineral compositions of IPO was higher (P<0.05) than others. FPI resulted in the highest percentage reduction of anti-nutritional factors (P<0.05).The IPT had the highest (P<0.05) value for metabolizable energy (2.73kcal/g). In experiment 2, the raw Icacina manni meals significantly (P<0.05) depressed growth as the levels of inclusion increased from 7.5% to 10%. For nutrient digestibility and utilization, raw Icacina manni meals did not revealed negative impacts on the nutrients utilization of weaner pigs. Diet 2 (5%) showed similar (P>0.05) economics of diet with control diet. The blood constituents analyzed revealed normal range values except for PCV for diet 3 (7.5%) and diet 4 (10%), MCV, MCH and MCHC for all the diets, total protein for diet 4 (10%), albumin for diet 3 (7.5%) and diet 4 (10%), cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase for all the diets. In experiment 3, body weights gain, FCR and economics of diets showed no significant (P>0.05) difference. Processed Icacina mannii meals significant (P<0.05) improved nutrient digestibility and utilization of weaner pigs. The blood constituents analyzed revealed normal range values except for cholesterol for diet 2 (IPO). In experiment 4, weaner pigs fed 10% FPI (diet 3) and 12% FPI (DIET 4) performed better for body weight gains, FCR, and economics of diets among others. Graded levels of FPI comparably (P>0.05) improved nutrient digestibility and nutrient utilization of weaner pigs among majority of the parameters measured. The blood constituents analyzed revealed normal range values except for MCH and Cholesterol for all the diets. It is therefore concluded that fermented and processed Icacina mannii meal emerged as the best processing technique among others. Quantitative replacement of maize with raw Icacina mannii meals at 5% dietary level of inclusion was not deleterious to weaner pigs. Weaner pigs fed diet containing fermented and processed Icacina mannii meal (FPI) gave the best performance numerically among the pigs fed differently processed tuber meal at 6% dietary level of inclusion. The dietary level of inclusion of quantitative replacement of the maize with the product of the best processing technique (FPI) was 10% - 12%.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              xi

List of Plates                                                                                                               xiii

List of Figure                                                                                                              xiv

Abstract                                                                                                                      xv

 

CHAPTER   1:   INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background  of the Study                                                                                 1

1.2        Objectives of the Study                                                                                                 2

1.3        Statement of Problem                                                                                        3

1.4        Justification                                                                                                        4

 

CHAPTER 2:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Origin/Distribution                                                                                          5

2.2       Common Names                                                                                             5

2.3       Synonym                                                                                                         5

2.4       Taxonomy                                                                                                       5

2.5       Botany                                                                                                            7

2.6       Ecology                                                                                                           9

2.7       Agronomy                                                                                                       9

2.8       Chemical Compositions                                                                                  10

2.9       Function Of Mineral In Pigs                                                                           12

2.10     Anti - Nutritional Factors                                                                               15

2.10.1  Tannin                                                                                                             15

2.10.2  Phytate                                                                                                            16

2.10.3 Hydrogen cyanide  (HCN)                                                                             17

2.10.4  Oxalates                                                                                                          18

2.10.5  Galactosamine (GAL)                                                                                     19

2.11     Traditional Processing of Roots and Tubers                                                   20

2.12     Constraints in the Traditional Processing of Root /Tubers                             20

2.13     Traditional Processing Techniques                                                                  22

2.13.1  Processed with oil                                                                                           22

2.13.2  Fermented and processed for 72 hours                                                           23

2.13.3  Processed and toasted (Garri form)                                                                25

2.14     Dietary Energy for Pigs                                                                                  25

2.14.1    Measurement of energy                                                                                  26

2.14.2  Deficiencies of energy in pig nutrition                                                           28

2.15     Digestibility of Nutrients                                                                                30

2.15.1  Assumptions of digestibility                                                                           31

2.15.2 Factors influencing digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs                        32

2.16     Uses of Icacina mannii                                                                                   37

2.16.1  Cropping uses                                                                                                 37

2.16.2  Livestock  uses                                                                                                39

2.17     Blood                                                                                                              39

2.17.1  Blood chemistry                                                                                              39

2.17.2. Haematological indices                                                                                   44

2.17.2.1 Haemoglobin (Hb)                                                                                        44

2.17.2.2  Red blood cell (RBC)                                                                                  45

2.17.2.3  Packed cell volume (PCV)                                                                           45

2.17.2.4  White blood cell (WBC)                                                                              46

2.17.2.5 Mean  corpuscular  volume  (MCV)                                                 50

2.17.2.6  Mean  corpuscular haemoglobin  (MCH)                                                     50

2.17.2.7Mean  corpuscular haemoglobin concentration  (MCHC)                             50

2.18             Economy  of Production                                                                               51

2.18.1   Cost-effective feeding strategies for growing pigs                                       52

2.18.2  Cost/Kg of feed                                                                                              57

2.18.3  Cost of feed consumed                                                                                   57

2.18.4  Cost/Kg weight gain                                                                                       57

2.18.5  Revenue                                                                                                          58

2.18.6  Gross margin                                                                                                   58

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3:   MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     Experimental Location                                                                                       59

3.2     Feedstuff and Processing of  Icacina mannii  Tubers                                       59

3.3        Experimental  Animals  and their Management                                     61

3.4        Experimental   Diets                                                                                          62

3.4.1 Raw Icacina manni meal (RO)                                                                          62

3.4.2  Processed  Icacina manni meals                                                                       63

3.4.3   Fermented and processed Icacina manni meals                                              64

3.5          Chemical Analysis                                                                                           65

3.6          Mineral Determination                                                                                     65

3.7              Determination of Anti-Nutrients                                                                    67

3.7.1        Tannic acid (tannin)                                                                                        67

3.7.2        Phytate                                                                                                                        68

3.7.3        Hydrogen cyanide  (HCN)                                                                             68

3.7.4        Oxalate                                                                                                            69

3.7.5        Galactosamine                                                                                                 70

3.8       Determination of Metabolizable Energy of Raw and

Processed Icacina manni Meals.                                                                     71

 

3.9        Determination of Nutrient Digestibility of Weaner Pigs Fed                         72

3.10     Growth Performance                                                                                      74

3.11    Haematological and Blood Chemistry Analysis                                              74

3.11.1  Red blood cell count                                                                                       75

3.11.2  Haemoglobin Estimation  (cyanmethaemoglobin  method)                            76

3.11.3  Total white blood cell                                                                                     76

3.11.4  Packed cell volume                                                                                         77

3.11.5  Total  protein                                                                                                   77

3.11.6  Albumin                                                                                                          77

3.11.7  Alkaline phosphatase                                                                                      78

3.11.8 Cholesterol                                                                                                       78

3.11.9 Creatinine                                                                                                         79

3.12   Economics of the Experimental Diets                                                              79

3.13    Experimental Design and Date Collection                                                      80

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Proximate Composition of Raw and differently Processed

Icacina mannii Meals                                                                                          81

 

4.2    Anti-nutritional factors of Raw and differently Processed

  Icacina mannii Meals                                                                                       87                      

4.3   Mineral Composition (Macro) of Raw and differently

 Processed Icacina mannii   Meal                                                                         90

 

4.4   Mineral Composition (Micro) of Raw and differently

 Processed Icacina mannii Meals                                                                          93

 

4.5   Metabolizable Energy (ME) (kcal/g) of Raw and differently

Processed Icacina  mannii Meals.                                                                         96

 

4.6    Experiment Two (Raw)                                                                                      98

4.6.1        Proximate composition and gross energy of diets containing  graded level

of raw  Icacina  mannii meal                                                                          98

4.6.2        Anti-nutritional  factors in  diet containing  graded level

of  Icacina  mannii meal                                                                                 100

4.6.3        Growth  performance  of weaner  pigs  fed diet containing  graded level

of Icacina  mannii meal                                                                                  102

4.6.4        Haematological  indices of weaner pigs fed diet containing  graded level

of raw Icacina manni meals                                                                            105

4.6.5        Blood  chemistry of weaner  pigs fed diet containing  graded level

of raw Icacina manni meals                                                                            107

 

4.6.6        Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed diet containing  graded level

of raw Icacina manni meals                                                                           110

 

4.6.7        Energy utilization of weaner pigs fed diet containing  graded level

of raw Icacina manni meals                                                                            112

 

4.6.8:   Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner pigs fed diet containing  graded level  of raw    Icacina manni meals                                                                114

4.6.9    Cost-analysis  of weaner pigs fed diet containing  graded level

of raw  Icacina  manni meals                                                                          116

4.7      Experiment Three  (Processing Methods)                                                         119

    4.7.1    Proximate composition and gross energy composition of diet containing 

 differently   processed Icacina mannii meals.                                               119

 

4.7.2   Anti-nutritional factors of diet containing  differently  processed 

Icacina manni meals.                                                                                 121

 

4.7.3   Growth performance of weaner pigs fed  of diet containing 

           differently  processed  Icacina  manni   meals                                               123

 

 4.7.4   Haematological  indices  of weaner  pig fed of diet containing 

           differently   processed Icacina  mannii meals                                    125

 

 4.7.5   Blood  chemistry of weaner  pigs fed of diet containing 

           differently    processed Icacina mannii meals                                    127

 

4.7.6    Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed of diet containing 

           differently  processed  Icacina mannii meals                                                 129

 

4.7.7    Energy  utilization  of weaner  pigs fed of diet containing 

           differently processed  Icacina manni meals                                                   131

 

 4.7.8. Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner pigs fed of diet containing 

                 differently processed Icacina  manni meals                                                   133

 

 

4.7.9.  Cost analysis of weaner pigs fed of diet containing 

            differently processed Icacina mannii meals.                                                 135

4.8         Experiment Four (Fermented and Processed Icacina  manni Meals)              137

 

4.8.1    Proximate composition and gross energy composition of diets  containing

  graded levels  of  fermented and pressed Icacina  manni meals  (FPI)           137

 

4.8.2        Anti-nutritional factors of diets  containing  graded levels

 of fermented and pressed  Icacina manni meals (FPI)                                  139

 

4.8.3        Growth performance of weaner  pigs fed diets  containing  graded levels

 of fermented  and processed  Icacina mannii meals (FPI)                            141

 

4.8.4    Haematological indices of weaner pigs fed  diets  containing 

graded levels  of fermented and processed   Icacina mannii meals (FPI)      144

 

4.8.5.   Blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed  diets  containing  graded levels  of

fermented and processed   Icacina manni meals (FPI)                                   146

                        [                                                                      

4.8.6.   Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed diets  containing  graded levels  of fermented and processed Icacina mannii  meals (FPI)                                   148

 

4.8.7   Energy utilization of weaner pigs fed diets  containing  graded levels 

of fermented and processed  Icacina mannii meals                                         150

 

4.8.8    Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner pigs fed  diets  containing

 graded levels  of fermented and processed Icacina mannii  meals (FPI)      152

 

 

4.8.9.  Cost analysis of weaner pigs fed diets  containing  graded levels  of fermented and processed Icacina mannii meals (FPI)                                                                   154

 

Conclusion and Recommendation                                                                              157

References                                         

                                                                        160

LIST OF TABLES

 

2.1       The proximate composition of raw and differently

processed Icacina mannii meals                                                                      11                               

 

2.2       Proximate  composition  of fresh and processed

 Icacina mannii meals (%DM)                                                                        11                               

 

2.3       Normal range of blood chemistry indices of

weaner or growing pigs                                                                                   43                   

2.4       Shows the mean and normal range of haematological indices

of blood  for weaners or  growing  pigs.                                                         51

 

 

3.1       Composition of Experimental  diets using  raw

Icacina mannii meals                                                                                      62

 

3.2       Composition  of Experimental  diets using  processed

Icacina mannii meals                                                                          63                               

 

3.3       Composition of experimental diets using fermented and

processed Icacina mannii meals (FPI)                                                            64

 

4.1       Proximate composition of raw and differently  processed

 Icacina manni meals                                                                                      86       

 

4.2       Anti-nutritional factors  of raw and differently processed 

Icacina manni  meals                                                                          89

     

4.3       Macro minerals Composition  of Raw  and differently processed

Icacina manni meals                                                                                       92

 

4.4       Micro mineral composition of raw and differently    

processed Icacina mannii meals                                                                      95

 

4.5       Metabolizable energy of raw and differently processed

     Icacina mannii meals.                                                                                      97

 

4.6.1    Proximate composition  and gross energy  of diets  containing graded  levels of

raw  Icacina mannii meals                                                                              99

4.6.2    Anti-nutritional factors of diets  containing graded  levels of

raw Icacina manni meals                                                                                101                 

4.6.3    Growth  Performance of Weaner  pigs fed  diets  containing graded  levels of raw

Icacina mannii  meals                                                                                     104

 

4.6.4    Haematological indices of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded  levels of raw

Icacina mannii meals.                                                                                     106

 

4.6.5    Blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded  levels of

             raw Icacina mannii meals                                                                              109

 

 4.6.6   Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed diets  containing

 graded  levels of raw Icacina mannii meals                                                   111

 

4.6.7    Energy utilization of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded  levels of

  raw Icacina mannii meals                                                                             113

 

4.6.8    Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded  levels of raw  Icacina manni meals                                                               115

 

4.7.1        Cost-analysis of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded  levels of

raw Icacina manni meals                                                                                118

4.7.1     Proximate composition and gross energy of  diets  containing differently processed Icacina manni meals                                                                                                120

4.7.2     Anti- nutritional factors of diets  containing differently processed

Icacina manni meals                                                                                       122

4.7.3    Growth performance of weaner pigs fed diets  containing differently processed

Icacina manni meals.                                                                                      124

 

 4.7.4   Haematological indices of weaner pigs fed diets  containing differently  processed 

Icacina manni meals                                                                                       126

 

 4.7.5   Blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed diets  containing differently processed

Icacina manni meals                                                                                       128

                                                                                                               

 4.7.6   Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed diets  containing

 differently processed Icacina manni meals                                                   130

 

 4.7.7   Energy  utilization  of weaner  pigs fed diets  containing differently y processed

Icacina manni meals                                                                                       132

 

4.7.8    Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner  pigs fed

            diets  containing differently processed Icacina mannii meals                        134

 

4.7.2        Cost analysis of weaner pigs fed diets  containing differently processed

 Icacina manni meals                                                                                      136

 

4.8.1   Proximate composition and gross energy of diets  containing graded

 levels of   fermented  and pressed Icacina mannii meals                              138

 

 

 4.8.2  Anti-nutritional factors of diets  containing graded

 levels of   fermented  and pressed Icacina mannii meals                              140

 

 4.8.3  Growth performance of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded

 levels  of fermented and pressed  Icacina mannii  meals                              143

 

 4.8.4  The haematological indices of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded

 levels fermented and processed Icacina mannii  meals                                 145

 

4.8.5   Blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded

 levels fermented and processed   Icacina mannii  meals                               147

 

4.8.6   Apparent digestibility coefficients of weaner pigs fed  diets  containing graded

            levels fermented   and processed  Icacina mannii  meals                               149

 

4.8.7   Energy utilization  of weaner  pigs fed  diets  containing graded

 levels fermented  and processed Icacina mannii  meals                                151

                       

4.8.8    Nitrogen balance and protein utilization of weaner pigs

fed  diets  containing graded levels fermented and processed

 Icacina mannii  meals                                                                        153

 

4.8.9   Cost analysis of weaner pigs fed diets  containing graded levels 

fermented and processed  Icacina mannii  meals (FPI)                                  156

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF PLATES

1:   Icacina mannii tuber                                                                                             6

2:   Icacina mannii plant                                                                                             8

3:   Icacina mannii fruits                                                                                             38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

1.       The critical period of energy demand in the pig through its life and diseases that may be associated if an energy deficiency arises                   30

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APA

ASSAM, A (2023). Chemical And Nutritional Evaluation Of Icacina mannii (Earth Ball) Meals In The Diet Of Weaner Pigs. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jun 22, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/chemical-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-icacina-mannii-earth-ball-meals-in-the-diet-of-weaner-pigs-7-2

MLA 8th

ASSAM, ASSAM. "Chemical And Nutritional Evaluation Of Icacina mannii (Earth Ball) Meals In The Diet Of Weaner Pigs" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/chemical-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-icacina-mannii-earth-ball-meals-in-the-diet-of-weaner-pigs-7-2. Accessed 22 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

ASSAM, ASSAM. "Chemical And Nutritional Evaluation Of Icacina mannii (Earth Ball) Meals In The Diet Of Weaner Pigs". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023. Web. 22 Jun. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/chemical-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-icacina-mannii-earth-ball-meals-in-the-diet-of-weaner-pigs-7-2 >.

Chicago

ASSAM, ASSAM. "Chemical And Nutritional Evaluation Of Icacina mannii (Earth Ball) Meals In The Diet Of Weaner Pigs" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 22 Jun. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/chemical-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-icacina-mannii-earth-ball-meals-in-the-diet-of-weaner-pigs-7-2

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