Bud-Nipping Effect Of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) On The Growth And Yield Of Cassava And Pigeon Pea In Pigeon Pea/Cassava Intercrop In Umudike -Nigeria

AUGUSTINE CHUKWUKAODINAKA | 89 pages (22138 words) | Theses
Agronomy | Co Authors: OKAFOR

ABSTRACT

Field trials were conducted at the research farm of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike (NRCRI) (070 330 , 0.50 29/ N) in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons to determine the bud nipping effects of pigeon pea on the growth and yield of component crops in cassava/ pigeon pea intercrop in Umudike, Nigeria. Cassava at a density of 10,000 plants/ha were intercropped with pigeon pea at 20,000plants/ha. The sole cassava varieties were also planted at 10,000 plants/ha. The cassava varieties were NR 8082/bud-nipped PP; NR 8082/non bud-nipped PP; Sole NR 8082; TMS 30572/bud nipped PP; TMS 30572/non-bud nipped PP; Sole 30572; UMUCASS38/ bud-nipped PP; UMUCASS38/ non bud-nipped PP; Sole UMUCASS 38; NR 07/0220/bud-nipped PP; NR 07/0220/non bud-nipped PP; Sole NR 07/0220; Sole bud-nipped PP and sole non bud-nipped PP. One variety of pigeon pea was used. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Four varieties of cassava were used. Two white root (NR 8082 and TMS 30572) and two yellow root (TMS 01/1371 and NR 07/0220). The Pigeon peas were bud-nipped at two months after planting. The cassava was harvested at the end of 12 months while PP was harvested at 7 months after planting. The result showed that intercropping cassava with pigeon pea improved the utilization of growth resources optimally and increased the yields of the component crops. The result also showed that sole and intercropped TMS 30572 cassava variety gave highest fresh root yield in 2017/2018 and in 2018/2019 cropping seasons. The cassava varieties- UMUCASS 38 pigeon pea no bud nipping and NR 8082 pigeon pea no bud nipping were more productive in gross monetary return, net return and benefit-cost ratio indices than other treatments in the two cropping seasons.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      ix

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                              1

1.1       Statement of Problem                                                                                                 2

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                   4

2.1       Conceptual Review                                                                                         4

2.1.1    Concept of bud nipping                                                                                  4

2.1.2    Response of pigeon pea to bud nipping                                                          6

2.1.3    Importance of legume in intercropping                                                           9

2.1.4    Pigeon pea in intercropping system                                                                10

2.1.5    Cassava in intercropping system                                                                     11

2.16     Land equivalent ratio (LER)                                                                           13

2.1.7    Gross monetary revenue (GMR)                                                                     14

2.1.8    Cost benefit ratio (CBR)                                                                                14

 

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                       16

3.1.      Description of experimental site                                                                     16

3.2       Field preparation and soil sampling                                                                16

3.3       Experimental design, treatment and treatment allocation                              16

3.4       Planting and planting materials                                                                       17

3.5       Field maintenance                                                                                           17

3.6       Data Collection                                                                                               18

3.7       Proximate analysis                                                                                          18

3.7.1    Determination of moisture content                                                                 18

3.7.2    Determination of crude protein                                                                      19

3.7.3    Determination of ash                                                                                      20

3.7.4    Determination of fat                                                                                       20

3.7.5    Determination of crude fibre                                                                          21

3.7.6    Determination of carbohydrate                                                                       21

3.7.7    Determination of caloric value                                                                        22

3.8       Productivity analysis                                                                                       22

3.8.1    Land equivalent ratio (LER)                                                                           23

3.8.2    Land equivalent coefficient                                                                            23

3.8.3    Area time equivalent ratio (ATER)                                                                 23

3.8.4    Gross monetary return (GMR)                                                                        23

3.8.5    Total cost of production                                                                                 23

3.8.6    Net return (NR)                                                                                              23

3.8.7    Benefit-cost ratio (BCR)                                                                                24

3.9       Statistical analysis                                                                                           24

           

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                        25

 

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION                                                                                  61

 

REFERENCES                                                                                                         62

 

 


 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 4.1:        Soil Physico-chemical properties of the experimental sites in                                     2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons (0 - 20 cm)             26

 

Table 4.2:        Agro-meteorological data of the experiential sites in Umudike, Nigeria

                        (January-December 2017, 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons)             27

 

Table 4.3:        Effect of intercropping  Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava variety on

                        plant height of cassava at different ages in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

                        cropping seasons                                                                                 28

 

Table 4.4:        Effect of  intercropping Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava variety on

                        canopy spread and canopy thickness of cassava at 12 months after                          planting in 2018/2019 cropping season                                         30

 

Table 4.5:        Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava

                        variety on number of leaves per plant of cassava at different ages in

                        2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons                                      31

 

Table 4.6:        Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava

                        variety on yield components of cassava in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

                        cropping seasons                                                                                 33

 

Table 4.7:        Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava

                        variety on fresh root yield of cassava in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

                        cropping seasons                                                                                 35

 

Table 4.8:        Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud nipping and cassava

                        variety on proximate composition of fresh root yield of cassava in

                        2018/2019 cropping season                                                                 36

 

Table 4.9:        Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud nipping and cassava

                        variety on proximate composition of fresh root of cassava in 2018/2019

                        cropping season                                                                                   38

 

Table 4.10:      Effect of intercropping system, Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava

                        variety on growth attributes of pigeon pea at different ages in

                        2017/2018 and 2018/2019 cropping seasons                                      40

 

Table 4.11:      Effect of intercropping pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava variety on

                        yield and yield components of pigeon pea in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019

                        cropping seasons                                                                                 42

 

Table 4.12:      Effect of intercropping Pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava variety

                        on proximate composition of grain yield of pigeon pea in 2018/2019

                        cropping season                                                                                   43

 


 

Table 4.13:      Effect of intercropping pigeon pea bud-nipping and cassava variety on

                        proximate composition of grain yield of pigeon pea in 2018/2019

                        cropping season                                                                                   45

 

Table 4.14:      Correlation matrix of Fresh root yield of cassava and other plant

                        attributes in 2017/2018 crop                                                               47

 

Table 4.15:      Correlation matrix of fresh root yield of cassava and other plant                              attributes in 2018/2019 cropping season                                         48

 

Table 4.16:      Correlation matrix of grain yield of pigeon pea and plant attributes in

                        2017/2018 cropping season                                                                 49

 

Table 4.17:      Correlation matrix of grain yield of pigeon pea and other plant                                attributes in             2018/2019 cropping season                                         51

 

Table 4.18:       Effect of  cassava variety and pigeon pea bud-nipping on  land                               equivalent ratio, gross monetary return, land equivalent coefficient,                  total variable cost of production, net return and benefit cost ratio of                      component crop in cassava/pigeon pea intercrop in 2017/2018

                        cropping season                                                                                   52

 

Table 4.19:      Effect of cassava variety and pigeon pea bud-nipping on land                                  equivalent ratio, gross monetary return, land equivalent coefficient,                  total variable cost of production, net return and benefit cost ratio of                      component crop in cassava/pigeon pea intercrop in 2018/2019                                  cropping season                                                                                   54

 

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APA

AUGUSTINE, C (2023). Bud-Nipping Effect Of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) On The Growth And Yield Of Cassava And Pigeon Pea In Pigeon Pea/Cassava Intercrop In Umudike -Nigeria. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jul 16, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/bud-nipping-effect-of-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan-on-the-growth-and-yield-of-cassava-and-pigeon-pea-in-pigeon-peacassava-intercrop-in-umudike-nigeria-7-2

MLA 8th

CHUKWUKAODINAKA, AUGUSTINE. " Bud-Nipping Effect Of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) On The Growth And Yield Of Cassava And Pigeon Pea In Pigeon Pea/Cassava Intercrop In Umudike -Nigeria" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/bud-nipping-effect-of-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan-on-the-growth-and-yield-of-cassava-and-pigeon-pea-in-pigeon-peacassava-intercrop-in-umudike-nigeria-7-2. Accessed 16 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

CHUKWUKAODINAKA, AUGUSTINE. " Bud-Nipping Effect Of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) On The Growth And Yield Of Cassava And Pigeon Pea In Pigeon Pea/Cassava Intercrop In Umudike -Nigeria". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 15 Aug. 2023. Web. 16 Jul. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/bud-nipping-effect-of-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan-on-the-growth-and-yield-of-cassava-and-pigeon-pea-in-pigeon-peacassava-intercrop-in-umudike-nigeria-7-2 >.

Chicago

CHUKWUKAODINAKA, AUGUSTINE. " Bud-Nipping Effect Of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) On The Growth And Yield Of Cassava And Pigeon Pea In Pigeon Pea/Cassava Intercrop In Umudike -Nigeria" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 16 Jul. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/bud-nipping-effect-of-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan-on-the-growth-and-yield-of-cassava-and-pigeon-pea-in-pigeon-peacassava-intercrop-in-umudike-nigeria-7-2

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