Biochemical, Haematological And Nutritional Evaluation Of Raw And Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product Using Rabbits

74 pages (17757 words) | Projects

ABSTRACT

The effects of raw and toasted Bambara groundnut by-product was assessed on weight for weight replacement of soyabean meal in rabbit dict using growth performance; carcass quality; blood chemistry and haematological parameters and economic analysis. A total of 48 rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes(which were evenly distributed); aged between 7-8 weeks and with an initial average body weight of 925 grams were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatment groups of six rabbi ls per treatment using 2 x 4 Factorial in a Completely Randomized Design. The dietary treatments were formulalcd such that raw and toasted Bambara groundnut by-product quantitatively replaced soyabean meal at levels of 0, 5, 10 and I 5 respectively. Results showed that the raw Bambara groundnut by-product had higher crude protein (20.66) and crude fibre (15.04) than the toasted (19.00 and 14.25) respectively. There was no significant (P>0.05) effect of raw and toasted on the growth parameters of rabbits. Expect on the average gains, where the toasted proved better. At 5% level of inclusion, the raw and toasted were better than other levels (IO and 15) on the growth and economic analysis. And there were no significant (P>0.05) effect of raw and toasted and their levels of inclusion (0, 5, 10, I 5) on the carcass quality, blood chemistry and haematological parameters of rabbits.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIN. TITLE

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION·· · · · .. · · · · · · · · .. ·

DEDICATION · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT · · .

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ABSTRACT · · .. · · .. · · · · · · · · .. · · · · .. · · · · .. ·

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0 lnlroduction

I. I

1.2

1.3

Statement of the Problem

Objcctive

Justification OF THE Study

CHAPTER TWO:

2.0 Literature Review

.......................................................

. ······· ·········· ········· ······

········ ········· .

...................................................

...................................................

...........................................................

PAGE

iii

IV

V

YI

VIII

4

5

2.1 Potential or Unconventional Feed Resources for Rabbits 5

2.2 Non-Leguminous Crops and Residues for Rabbits Diets ·.... 5

2.2.1 Cassava Peel Meal as a Potential Fccdstuff for Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5

2.2.2 Rice llusk as a Potential FecdslulT for Rabbits : . .. .. . . . (l

2.2.3 Brewer's Dried Grain (BDG) as a Potential Fccclstuff for Rabbits . . . . . . . . . 7

2.2.4 Foliage as a Potential Fccdstuff for Rabbits . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. ... 7

2.2.5 Root and Tu her as a Polcnlial Fecdstuff !'or Rabbits .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. ... 8

2.3 Leguminous Seeds and Residues for Rabbi I Dids......................... ··· 8

VI

2.3.1 Acacia Albida pods as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits ..................... 8

2.3.2 African Locust Bean as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9

2.3.3 Cotton Seed Cake as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits ........................ 9

2.3.4 Comparative Evaluation of Palm Kernel meal, Peanut Meal and Sunflower

Meal in Rabbit Diets • • • • • . 9

2.3.5 Leaf Protein as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9

2.3.6 Castor Seed Meal as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0

2.3.7 Leucaena leucocephala as a Potential FccdstufT for Rabbits .............. I0

2.3.8 Neem as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . II

2.3.9 Kapok as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits ............ . . g • • • .. • • • • .. • • .. .. .. 11

2.3.10 Cowpea Husk as a Potential Feedstufffor Rabbits :................. 1'2

2.3.11 Chromolaena odorata as a Potential Feedstuff for Rabbits.................. 12

2.3 .12 Lima Bean as a Potential F eedstuff for Rabbits . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 12

2.4. ~ Nutritional Effects of Leguminous Seeds on Animals.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. 12

2.4.2 Some Anti-nutritional Factors and their Detoxification Methods.. . . . . . . . 13

2.4.2.1 Effects of Trypsin Inhibitors on Animals and its Detoxification Methods .. 13

2,4.2.2 Effects of Haemagglutinins on Animals and its Detoxification Methods.. 13

2.4.2.3 Effects of Cyanogenic Glycosides on Animals and its Detoxification Methods. 14

2.4.2.4 Effects of Tannins on Animals and its Detoxification Methods .....-.---...... [4

2.4.2.5Effects of Phytates on Animals and its Detoxifi cation Methods 15

2.4.2.6Effects of Caravan inc on Animals and its Detoxification Methods ............ ]5

2.5.l Nutritive Potential of Bambara Groundnut as Animal Feedstuff .............. 15

Vll

2.5.2 Utilization of Bambara Groundnut in Livestock Feeds 18

2.5.3 Availability of Bambara Groundnut for Livestock Feeds in Nigeria 19

2.5.4 Nutritive Potential of the Bambara Groundnut By-Product as Possible

FccdstufT for Rabbit 20

2.6.0 1-luematological and 13iochcmical Parameters of Animals 20

2.6. l Haematological Indices for Healthy animals 21

2.6.2 Biochemical Indices for Healthy Animals ·························· ...... 21

CHAPTER THREE:

3.0 Materials and Methods ...................................... ······· .

3.1 Procurement of the Test Ingredient: Bambara Groundnut By-Product...

3.1.1 Preparation of the Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product .....%....-.%,

3.2 Experimental Diets .

3 . 2 . I C 01npos1 ·t· 1011 o ,· · o· 1c t s ..................•.......................................

23

24

3.3 Location and Animals . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . 25

3.4 Allocation of Treatment, Data Collection and Methods of analysis ...... 25

3.5 Weight Ciain and Feed Intake .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ·· 26

3.6 Cost and Pro lit . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... 26

3.7 I lacmatological and Biochemical Indices .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. .. . . . .. 27

3.8 Carcass, Cutparts, and Organs Determination.. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. 2X

3.9 Analysis · 28

3.9.1 Chemical Analysis 28

3.9.2 Statistical Analysis of Data 28

VIII

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0 Results and Discussion . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... 29

4.1 Proximate Composition of Bambara Groundnut by-product. 29

4.2 'Effect of Raw and Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product on Growth

Performance of Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4.3 Effect of Raw and Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product on Carcass

Quality of Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 33

4.4 Effect of Raw and Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product on Blood

Chemistry and Haematology of Rabbits : . .. .. .. .. . .. ·39

4.5 Effect of Raw and Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product on Economies

of Rabbits Production.......----..........%....%...%3.3.3333-3....%......33..... 44]

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.1 SUMMARY

5.2 CONCLUSION

5.3 RECOMMENDATION

·············································· 47

.................................................. 48

· · 48

REFERENCES 49

APPENDIX 61 


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APA

-- (2023). Biochemical, Haematological And Nutritional Evaluation Of Raw And Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product Using Rabbits. Repository.mouau.edu.ng: Retrieved Jul 16, 2024, from https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/biochemical-haematological-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-raw-and-toasted-bambara-groundnut-by-product-using-rabbits-7-2

MLA 8th

--. "Biochemical, Haematological And Nutritional Evaluation Of Raw And Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product Using Rabbits" Repository.mouau.edu.ng. Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 28 Jul. 2023, https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/biochemical-haematological-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-raw-and-toasted-bambara-groundnut-by-product-using-rabbits-7-2. Accessed 16 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

--. "Biochemical, Haematological And Nutritional Evaluation Of Raw And Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product Using Rabbits". Repository.mouau.edu.ng, Repository.mouau.edu.ng, 28 Jul. 2023. Web. 16 Jul. 2024. < https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/biochemical-haematological-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-raw-and-toasted-bambara-groundnut-by-product-using-rabbits-7-2 >.

Chicago

--. "Biochemical, Haematological And Nutritional Evaluation Of Raw And Toasted Bambara Groundnut By-Product Using Rabbits" Repository.mouau.edu.ng (2023). Accessed 16 Jul. 2024. https://repository.mouau.edu.ng/work/view/biochemical-haematological-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-raw-and-toasted-bambara-groundnut-by-product-using-rabbits-7-2

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